Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Gambling

Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Gambling

Assessment of the Social and Economic Impacts of Gambling Sally Casswell En Li Lin Ru Quan You Brian Easton This research was funded by the Ministry of Health Principal Investigators: Professor Sally Casswell En-Yi (Judy) Lin Ru Quan (Ryan) You Brian Easton Professor Jurgen Rehm Lorna Dyall (Ngati Maniapoto), Lanuola Asiasiga and EnYi Lin served as cultural advisors to the project Social and economic impacts Systematic analysis

Reliant on available data General population survey Representative sample and allowing for disaggregation by age groups, gender and by ethnic groups (Maori; Pacific; Chinese and Korean; and European). Gambling participation measured independently of response to gambling Gambling participation disaggregated by mode and venue Negative and positive impacts measured Coverage of quality of life in number of selected domains Own and Associates impacts measured Cross-sectional with complementary measures of impacts included Replicable methodology Methodology CATI survey of stratified sample of NZ residents and over samples of ethnic minorities Data collected May November 2007 15 80 years Instrument based on extensive qualitative research and piloting. Translated into Chinese and Korean. Overall response rate 63%

Participation in gambling 62% participation in some form of gambling in past 12 months (raffles/casino evenings not listed) 54% bought lottery products in past 12 months 6% race track; 8% TAB; 8% pokies in casino; 8% pokies in bars; 4% pokies in clubs; 4%Poker/cards in homes Less than 1% internet, texting Categorisation of gambling by time and money Loss to income ratio (lost more than 5% of income) = 8% Time spent gambling (more than 3 hours per week) = 5% Higher participation ( more than 3 hours per week, loss to income ratio more than 5%) = 3.2% Figure 4: Percentage of general population (weighted) at each gambling level 100 percentage %

80 60 40 38.3 31.7 26.9 20 3.2 0 Not in the last 12 months Lottery products Lower participation Higher participation Gambling participation level Impacts of gambling loss/income

ratio physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance

study/work training performance care giving of children care giving of elderly negative negative negative negative negative negative no impact no impact negative no impact negative no impact no impact Longer time on race track

physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance study/work training performance care giving of children care giving elderly positive no impact no impact

positive no impact positive positive positive positive no impact no impact no impact no impact Longer time on casino tables

physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance study/work training performance care giving of children care giving elderly negative negative no impact no impact negative no impact no impact no impact no impact negative

no impact no impact no impact Longer time spent playing EGMs in clubs physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life

overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance study/work training performance care giving of children care giving elderly negative no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact Longer time spent playing EGMs in casino

physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance

study/work training performance care giving of children care giving elderly negative negative negative negative negative negative no impact positive positive no impact no impact no impact no impact Longer time playing EGMs in bars

physical health mental well being relationships with family and friends feelings about self overall quality of life overall satisfaction with life financial situation housing situation material standard of living work performance study/work training performance care giving of children care giving elderly negative negative negative

negative negative negative no impact no impact no impact no impact no impact negative no impact Time spent playing EGMs in different venues Percentage of gamblers who report weekly gambling durations 100 Pub pokies Club pokies 80 Casino pokies Proportion Gamblers

60 40 20 0 0 to 15 minutes 15 to 60 minutes 1 hour to 3 hours 3 hours plus Impacts of other peoples gambling About 12% had at least one person in their lives whom they considered to have been fairly heavy gamblers They reported poorer physical health, poorer mental well being and lower life satisfaction They were also more likely to have been involved in illegal activities

Satisfaction with Life: estimated effects of three counterfactuals STATE OF ACTUAL SITUATION COUNTERFACTUAL SATISFACTION WITH LIFE No-Gambling No-EGMs No-Associates Very Satisfied Satisfied Neither Satisfied or Dissatisfied 1,245,000 1,666,000 174,000 1,240,000 1,676,000 172,000 1,259,000 1,658,000 171,000

1,262,000 1,655,000 171,000 Dissatisfied Very Dissatisfied TOTAL Net Improvement 52,000 22,000 3,160,000 51,000 21,000 3,160,000 1,000 51,000 21,000 3,160,000 22,000 51,000 21,000

3,160,000 22,000 Conclusions Loss to income ratio good predictor on reduced quality of life in a number of life domains Time spent gambling in different modes/venues showed impact of pokies, especially in bars. Other modes of gambling more variable. The study revealed significant associations between exposure to heavy gamblers and physical and mental health and satisfaction with life. The study provided useful data to contribute to estimates of the social costs of gambling

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