CITIZENS IN THE COMMONWEALTH FOR REAL DEMOCRACY Association Club canoe kayak Levski Association "Sports Club Wrestling Simeon Shterev - Levski" BULGARIA History
Tradition Culture FIRST BULGARIAN EMPIRE (681 - 1018) After the dissolution of Great Bulgaria, which was located in contemporary Ukraine, a part of them settled in the Balkans and merge with those who came from the north at the beginning of VII century Slavs who in turn mixed with the
local Byzantines. Once the leader of Khan Asparuh won a victory over one of the armies of Emperor Constantine IV, the then head of the Byzantine Empire signed agreement between Asparuh and the Byzantine Emperor. Under this agreement, Bulgars and Slavs receive the bulk of the territory between the Balkan and Danube. This marks the beginning of the creation of the emerging Bulgarian nation. Treaty with Byzantium in 681, is considered as a moment of creation of the First Bulgarian Empire until the year of the creation of modern Bulgaria is 1878. Around 900 mix of Bulgarians, Slavs and Thracians descendants form the new nation of the Bulgarians. An important element in the formation of the new Bulgarian nationality is the common language that is developed on the basis of Slavic. They are classified as a South Slavic people, such as Serbs, not Turkic
(which was probably the language of the Bulgars). After the conversion the title Khan is replaced by Prince. Later, the son of Prince Boris I - Simeon I (893-927), the king of the title of Emperor of the Bulgarians and Bulgarians and Greeks (called by some historians Danube Bulgaria) to distinguish it from the Volga Bulgaria, inhabited by Proto. The title Emperor was recognized by the Pope, but not by the Byzantine Emperor. Simeon time I was called a golden age of Bulgarian state (Golden Age (Middle Ages in Bulgaria)). Sam received his education in Constantinople installed various literary centers throughout Bulgaria. Simeon I became a serious threat to the Byzantine Empire. After many successes aims to conquer Constantinople. Is proclaimed emperor.
After the death of Simeon I of Bulgaria strength decline. A Bogomilism. At the same time King was Peter I, appeared and retreat. Peter was the dalgoupravlyavaliyat Bulgarian ruler at the beginning of his reign concluded a peace treaty with Byzantium, but after he started a war with the Byzantines. In 968 Kievan Rus managed to seize the capital Preslav, which Bulgaria lost the entire eastern part of their territory. Bulgaria then moved his capital after 50 years of bitter war with Byzantium, Bulgaria began to move towards failure. At the time of King Samuil led many wars and many heavy defeat was inflicted by the Byzantine emperor Basil II in the Battle of trajn where miraculously Byzantine remains alive. But it turns fatal battle near the village of Key,
which kills thousands of Basil II and ordered 14,000 prisoners to be blinded. Owing to this action Byzantine emperor was called by later writers Bulgars. When Tsar Samuil saw them die. In 1018 the last strongholds were captured from the Byzantine Empire. Then the throne was Tsar Ivan Vladislav. This is the end of the First Bulgarian Empire. TRADITION Traditions and holidays in Bulgaria for the period 01 january - 01 april
01 JANUARY-VASILOVDEN With Vasilovden put the beginning of the new year. The feast is also called Survaki for Bulgarian custom sourvakane. According to tradition been around children and cornel survachka wish health and prosperity of farmers and house. Survachka are made of dogwood - early flowering with solid timber plant. Their decoration is strings of popcorn, dried fruits, small coins, colored threads, bagels. Children begin survakane the oldest, saying greetings. The hosts give sourvakars with bagels, dried fruit, little money and sweets. With your wishes sourvakars to expel the impure forces rampant during the "dirty" days and to protect people from them. On this day Incoming are Vasil, Vasilka, Veselin, Veselina, Vesela.
JA N UA RY 6 - YORD A NOV DEN C E L E B R AT I O N T H R O U G H O U T BULGARIA According to the Orthodox calendar celebrates Yordanovden celebration baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist in the Jordan River. On this day, wherever there is water, the ritual is throwing a cross from the local church. After removal of the cross serves liturgy called Great blessing. On it is updated holy water in temples. Since it is a home. It keeps disease and purifies the soul. On this day is the consecration of the water. After the service at the church priest throws a cross into the water and remove it bachelors. It is believed that one who has removed the cross from the water will be healthy and happy. He
goes around the village with the cross, and give it all. There is a belief that if a cross thrown into the water freezes, the year will be healthy and fertile. Jordan is associated with the belief that the night before the holiday sky opens and which now she wants something, it will be fulfilled. 07 JANUARIIVANOVDEN National celebration of the rich in ritual terms Christmas and New Year holiday cycle. The ritual bathing Health Jordan continues on Yordanovden. In some areas of the country it is even more typical of this holiday by extending the circle of escaped. Throughout the
ceremony for the couple, the action is performed by the best man and brother-in-law. Therefore, the washing could be seen as part of bridal customs, which closes wide range of wedding rituals. This day lads maidens bathe, bathed the young men and nameday. In southwestern Babgariya bathe brides and young girls to 1 year includes ritual bathing and exchange of gifts, and visits and festive table. People's idea of St. John as patron of kumstvoto and pobratimstvoto determined at visits sponsors. Kumtsite have bread, meat, wine. Make a common table. St. John of the deadline in which masked bands go Christmas. In some areas of the country carol king solemnly lead the fountain and
bathing. He then organizes a banquet, attended and disguised as a bear, bride, etc. arap men. Finally, all out of the festive dance, which ended with the complete cycle of the custom. At St. John's Orthodox Church celebrates the day of St. John the Baptist, who baptized Jesus in the Jordan River. John knows Jesus and points as a messenger of God. Called Baptist because predicts the coming of Christ on earth. 08 JANUARY BABINDEN After Yordanovden is celebrated in Bulgaria Babinden. It is an ancient holiday that has been preserved to our days of pagan times. It is dedicated to the midwives, who in the old days,
helped birth. Overall this holiday is seen as a kind of female response to males of a certain holidays like Epiphany and St. John. Early in the morning when the midwife came women whose children are aged 1 to 3 years. There in the courtyard under the fruit trees are performing the ritual "washing of hands". Young women, who brought with him from home a bucket of clean water, soap and a fresh towel and pour the water "midwife" to wash his hands, and then submit the towel, which she accepted as a gift (as the midwife brought gifts Clothing, Textiles - all leave her right shoulder). In this ritual the old woman wishes of the child is alive and well, and sprayed it with water.
For its part, the grandmother gave the mothers socks and shirts for their children, and if the mother and child came, she tied the hands monetka or figure of a horse who knit in white and red threads. On this day all the women come out to dinner with the midwife. Each brings wine, brandy, boiled chicken and ritual breads, and the entrance to the house kissing the hand of the hostess. Up with all the fun, joking, talking almost always issues with sexual overtones. Midwife herself sometimes conducts rituals that should help women to have more children. On this day men are not allowed, but at some point they come to the house of the old woman, dressed as a bull with horns pre-made cart, take grandmother pushed her in the stroller and carry it to the river
where she was bathing in the water. This ritual bathing is done to be alive and well in the new year grandmother. The day ends with evening entertainment and dancing. JANUARY 20 2 0 J A N UA RY - P E T LY OV D E N Petlovden, Petelarovden holiday revered in Eastern Bulgaria to the health of boys. Associated with the ritual slaughter of cock most of the threshold gate. The blood of it must shatter the door. They make a sign of the cross and the faces of the boys and petelarya (person cars and cock to be an adolescent boy). Slaughter cock thrown outside the yard and then
immediately retract it. Head left at Vratnik. Cooked meat and buns ritual or broken pieces dealt asks neighbors. The actions carried out until the holidays are similar to those of Midwives' Day. In Plovdiv day is known as Black or Tsaran day. Here, besides the sacrifice of black cock (or hen) is observed and number restrictions. Women do not work, do not bathe, do weddings, lest tsarneyat ie not sparing died. Slaughter a rooster population associated with the widespread legend of King Herod, who ordered all male children beheaded for Christ to die. 0 1 F E B R UA RY TRIFONZAREZAN On February 1, the Orthodox Church celebrates St. Trifon - healer,
glorified by miracles which he did. St. Trifon was born in 225 g.n.e. the family of the poor Christians in Asia Minor of the Roman Empire. At the age of 17 was able to heal seriously ill daughter of Emperor Gordian, which was richly rewarded by the imperial family. Only a few years later, the throne successor Gordian - Trajan Decius, who for his brief reign succeeded in killing many Christians because of their faith. One of them was Tryphon, who did not want to give up Christianity, and died of his wounds after long torture, but the prayer of mouth. On this day - February 1 - the Bulgarian custom harvesters celebrate, tavern-keepers and gardeners, who are protected by the saint of healing. Custom dictates lady of the house to be
sooner and ritual bread, decorated with vine leaves. Cook and chicken and pour in the wine vessel from the best wine. It is placed in a colorful bag with her owner heads to the vineyard. They assembled men began the ritual of cutting of vines. Facing east and meeting the sun, they abandon three vines and twigs cut to decorate their hats. The vines are sprayed with holy water and bless for fertility and prosperity. Select "King of the vines" - usually a wealthy man, then make a general table of the very rich vineyard or in the house of the king. 01 MARCH BABA MARTA In folk tales, Baba Marta is the sister of Large and Small horned beetle (January and February) and is always hot, because her two brothers drank
wine every year and do not even let him try. Hence the belief that Baba Marta must have pity, because her mood affects the development time. When laughing, the weather is sunny and warm, but you mad, zaduhva wind and clouds obscure the sun. On March 1st the people troubled by Baba Marta and crops, dressed in a red dress, red scarf and red socks. March is women's month only, it is the month of conception of spring and earth which will bear the summer and fertility. Baba Marta is one of the most revered Bulgarian customs that have survived to the present day. According to some belief on this day is celebrated and to prevent snakes and lizards perceived as potential pests. As precautionary measures against fires, jump it, swinging bells, circling the house. On this day everyone gives to their loved ones a special amulet called
martenitza health and strength in the coming year. Martenitsas are made specifically for the March 1, when according to the Bulgarian people start the new business year. On the first of March each must bear martenitsa, especially young children, newlyweds and newborn pets. Martenitsas put the wrists, the neck as a necklace or clothes left. In some Bulgarian regions where it is placed martenitsa depends on social status. Young unmarried girls wear martenitzas left of his clothes, young bachelors wear them on the little finger of his left hand, married men put their Martenitsa the right sock. Some fruit trees, doorknobs and cellars also put martenitzas. People wear martenitzas for a certain period of time. Usually the
period is connected with the signs of approaching spring - trees in the first meeting with the arrival of migratory birds - storks, swallows or cranes. Then people download martenitsa and then tied to a tree blossomed and rested it under a rock. TODOROVDEN Theodore feast is celebrated on the Sabbath day of the first week of Lent. On this day, and on February 17, the Church celebrates the memory of St. Theodore Tyron. Honoring St. Theodore was manifested in the early centuries. During the persecution of Christians, the Emperor Julian the Apostate (332-363) continued to ask for the return of paganism. Knowing that 40 days before Easter, Christians observe a strict
fast, he decided to trick them and compel them to eat things sacrificed to idols food. Julian ordered the mayor of Constantinople to sprinkle the blood of secret pagan sacrifices all meatless foods on the market, so that Christians, even without knowing it, to be defiled and mocked. St. Theodore Tyron appeared to Evdoksiy patriarch and his famous order of Julian the Apostate. Also commanded him to warn Christians not to take food from the market this week. Warn Christians ate boiled wheat (kolivo). Julian understood that the intention is revealed, remained undefiled ashamed and let the heathen commodity market. C U L T U R E
BULGARIAN ALPHABET In 886, Bulgaria adopted the script of, created by St. Cyril and Methodius in the 60s years of the IX century. The only literary source, which indicates the year in which it was created Glagolic writing, his work is "for the letter" ("Oh pismnyha") nyha") of the Free University eminent writer, namely in 6363, the Alexandrian chronology, or 863 on the current chronology. Glagolitic alphabet was gradually replaced with Cyrillic letters - alphabet, created in the Preslav Literary School at the beginning of X century. Some letters in the Cyrillic alphabet is borrowed from the Greek alphabet, those sounds that had no
Greek counterparts, using simplified versions of the Glagolitic letters are letters g, h, y, z , , uh, . The oldest Bulgarian , , uh, . The oldest Bulgarian manuscripts from the end of X and the beginning of XI century Evidence that the Glagolitic alphabet is older than the Cyrillic alphabet are: first, the oldest Bulgarian manuscripts by Zografski gospel Mariinsky gospel prayer Sinai and others. Were written in Glagolitic, secondly, Glagolitic manuscripts have more ancient language features, thirdly, some literary monuments written with Cyrillic letters on parchment on which was Glagolitic letter, but it is scrubbed, and there are only traces of it - these are called palimpsests, what is the Earliest witnessed Old Cyrillic text is the inscription on
chragubilya Mostich, senior dignitary in Simeon and Tsar Peter the Great. It should inscription on a stone slab of 993, set by King Samuel in memory of his parents and his brother. Traditionally used in Bulgaria in the first quarter of the 19th century version of the old Cyrillic alphabet, which is used sporadically and letters and added in the 14-15 century. The transition from the old to the Russian Cyrillic alphabet in civil Bulgaria is somewhere in the 1830's. It is facilitated by material superiority of Russian literature (printing presses, publishing) and spread at the time of panslavyanskite ideas. Bulgarian civil Alphabet take back the old Cyrillic letter and and lacking in Russia at the expense of and strung that are discarded in the Bulgarian version. Modern Bulgarian Cyrillic yield final version,
when a spelling reform of 1945 characters are removed and . THANK YOU FOR YOUR ATTENTION This project is implemented with the financial support of the "Youth in Action" Programme of the European Commission in Bulgaria administered by the National Centre "European Youth Programmes and Initiatives". The contents of this publication does not reflect the position of the European Community program "Youth in Action" or NCEYP.
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