ASTRONOMY - IB Physics Ancaster

ASTRONOMY - IB Physics Ancaster

ASTRONOMY The Introduction Look Up At the Sky. What do you see? Daytime: Sun, Moon Nighttime: Moon, Stars, Planets, Comets, Meteors, Constellations (groups of stars that form shapes or patterns)

Whats the Difference? Astrology: The interpretive study of the sky using myths to explain and predict events This is NOT based on know facts, so it is NOT a science! Astronomy: -the study of the sky using collected data to explain and predict events. -This is based on facts to explain what is happening, so it IS a science!!

Constellations The International Astronomical Union (IAU) divides the sky into 88 constellations with clear boundaries,

mapping every part of the sky to one of these. Each constellation is grouped within one of eight OUR SOLAR SYSTEM HAS:

A star in the center (the SUN) 8 planets orbiting the sun Moons orbiting some of these planets As asteroid belt (thousands of small rocky objects in a ring between Mars and Jupiter)

Several comets (chunks of frozen matter that travel in a long orbit around the Sun) Planets Orbiting Around the Sun: A Small Comparison. Comets

Comet West (1976) Comets are made of a nucleus of frozen gas and dust and an outer layer of ice THE PLANETS

Are spherical in shape Vary in size Reflect light from the Sun Rotate on an axis Revolve in Elliptical orbits around the Sun Are different distances from the sun Planet Information

Planets like Venus reflect light from the Sun back to us, making it look like a star Planets appear to move forwards and backwards (retrograde motion), and stars do NOT move!

EARTH INFORMATION ci/FlashFile/Module_IV_08_10_2004. swf EARTH INFORMATION Every 10 seconds, the Earth travels ~725km in its orbit around the Sun

The Earth rotates on a tilted axis. Every 24 hours, the Earth makes one full rotation on it own axis = a day EARTH INFORMATION

The motion of the Earth around the Sun, its tilt around the sun causes the seasons

When it is winter here, it is summer in the Southern hemisphere In our summer, the Earth is tilted such that the Northern hemisphere is tipped toward the Sun Seasonal weather conditions are based on the amount of energy incident on the Earths surface in that season SEASONAL VARIATIONS

The tilt also causes the length of day and night to change as the Earth orbits the Sun

June 21: Summer solstice (longest day) Dec. 21: Winter solstice (shortest day) March 21: Vernal equinox (equal day/night) Sept. 22/23: Autumnal equinox The Changing Seasons SEASONAL VARIATIONS

Equinox: The word means "equal night." It refers to the two moments each year when the sun appears to cross the equator. The sun doesn't really move, but it looks like it does to us. That's because our Earth is tilted as it revolves around the sun once a year. Continued LEAP YEARS

The Earths orbit around the Sun is a few hours longer than 365 days Thus there are 365.24 days in a year Every 4 years we have a leap year to account for this extra time

Over a hundred years, we account for too much time, so we skip a leap year. THE SUN

Earths distance from the Sun allows it to have solid, liquid and gaseous forms of water because of the range of temperature Planets ability to convert the Suns energy to food enables life to exist on Earth The Sun is a star!! Sun provides heat, light and gravity needed to keep the eight

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