# Astronomy Research Project - Abington School District

Astronomy Research Project By: Sara Rubin Sir Isaac Newton Gravity Gravity is what causes all

objects with mass to be attracted to each other. The acceleration of a falling object due to the force of gravity is 9.8m/s/s.(Air resistance causes this number to differ for different masses.)

The Three Laws of Motion An object at rest will stay at rest, and an object in motion will stay in motion unless an outside force is applied to it. (Law of

Inertia) http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/mmedia/newtlaws/cci.html

A force acting on a object is equal to the mass of the object times its acceleration. F=ma (Force=mass* acceleration) For every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

The Centripetal Force The force that keeps objects in a circular motion (it pulls it toward the center) Ex. The moons orbit

http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/mmedia/circmot/cf.html Inverse Square Law Mathematical formula that can tell you the intensity of light, the strength of an electric charge, and the strength of gravitational

attraction Force = 1/(distance * distance) (An inverse is 1 divided by a number, and a square is a number multiplied by itself) Thus, F= 1/d2 This explains the changing speed of a planetthe closer to the sun~ the faster speed, more gravitation pull the farther from the sun~ the

slower speed, less gravitational pull. Escape Velocity Definition: the minimum velocity needed to escape the gravitational pull of a planet, moon, asteroid, or other object Earth: 11.2 Km/sec

Mars: 5Km/sec Life

Born on Christmas 1642 in England Discovers gravity

Comes up with the 3 laws of motion Publishes his ideas Robert Hooke becomes his nemesis Edmund Halley- supporter Knighted by the Queen Died at age of 84

Calculus He called it the method of fluxions (flowing or changing qualities) Deals with numbers that are not constant, but changing Differentiation Integration (opposite of differentiation)

Used to describe the movement of objects such as cannon balls and moons The Particle Theory of Light He said that white light was a mixture of many different colored light rays. Each was refracted by a different amount of glass and

they became separated after shining through the prism. He also stated that light was the result of the movement of tiny particles or corpuscles. Robert Hooke and other scientists believed that light was rays or pulses.

Telescope The lens had a problem with refraction Bowl-shaped mirror (Newtonian or Reflecting telescope) This design is still used today

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