Astronomy - Studying the Stars & Space

Astronomy - Studying the Stars & Space

Years of Classifying Stars Letters were assigned to stars of different spectrum. Stars were classified by the elements they were made of Stars are now classified by how hot they are and arranged by class and temperature blue 30,000 degrees + helium 10 Lacerate

Blue & white 7,500 30000 degrees Hydrogen and helium Vega, Rigel, Sirius white Yellow 6,000 7, 500 degrees Hydrogen

and heavier elements Procyon Yellow 5,000-6,000 degrees Calcium and other metals The sun & Capella orange 3,500-5,000 degrees

Calcium and other molecules Aldebaran red Less than 3, 500 degrees molecules Betelgeus e Types of Stars Stars are classified by how hot they are Brightest stars in the sky are called 1st magnitude Dimmest are called

6th magnitude Positive number stars are dim stars, and negative numbers represent brightest stars Quasars A very bright (luminous) star-like object that generates energy at a high rate. Thought to be the most distant objects in the universe Some are as massive as 10 billion of our Suns Most powerful energy source in the universe Blue Stars The hottest

stars are blue stars such as Rigel, =30,000 C Brightest star in our night sky is Sirius Pulsar A rapidly spinning neutron star that emits rapid pulses of radiation Develops at the end of a stars life as a last gasp before it goes supernova Types of Brightness Absolute Magnitude The actual

brightness of a star The brightness that a star would have at a distance of 32.6 light years from Earth Suns magnitude is +4.8 Apparent Magnitude The brightness of a star as it is seen from Earth Our sun is very close to us so it has an apparent magnitude of 26.8 but only an absolute magnitude of +4.8 which makes

it apparently small Main Sequence Stars Second and longest stage of a stars life Energy is generated in the core of the star as hydrogen fuses to helium Size of the star remains constant as long as the core is full of hydrogen Red Giant & Super giant A star that expands and cools once all of its hydrogen is gone Center of the star shrinks and its

atmosphere grows Can be 10 times bigger than our sun as red giant or 100 times bigger as a super giant White Dwarf A small hot star that is the leftover center of an older star Has no hydrogen left Final stage of a stars life Can shine for billions of years before they cool completely When Stars Get Old . . .

Black hole Supernova an object so massive massive blue stars use their hydrogen and dense that even quickly and may light cannot escape explode in a huge its gravity bright flash Gas or dust that sink Can be brighter than into black hole from a an entire galaxy for star form x-ray light several days which may indicate a A collapsed star can black

holes existence become a pulsar Hertzsprung-Russell Diagram Hot blue stars are on the left cool red to the right, bright stars on top and dim stars on the A graph that shows the relationship between a stars surface temperature and absolute magnitude Shows how they are classified by brightness and temperature and how they change over time

Other Terms Spectrum the band of color produced when white light passes through a prism Parallax an apparent shift in the position of an object when viewed from different locations Main sequence the location on the HR diagram where most stars lie Neutron star a star that has collapsed under gravity to the point that the electrons and protons have smashed together to form neutrons

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