ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

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ATM OCN 100 - Summer 2001 LECTURE 1B OBSERVATIONS of EARTH'S ATMOSPHERE (cont.)

A. Introduction Practical Questions B. The Planet Earth & Earth Systems ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 B. THE PLANET EARTH & EARTH SYSTEMS Uniqueness of Planet Earth

Water Planet The planet with life Components of Planet Earth System

Lithosphere Atmosphere Hydrosphere Cryosphere Biosphere

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 Interactions within System Weathering Hydrological cycle ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

From Geog. 101 UW-Stevens Point C. SURVEY of PLANET EARTHS ATMOSPHERE Importance of Earth's atmosphere

Moderates temperature of planet; Shields life from harsh space environment; Provides life with water, oxygen, etc. Overall Dimensions of Earth's atmosphere

About 100 km (62 mi) thick; Compare with 6370 km (3950 mi) earth radius; but .... ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1

NORMALIZED DENSITY PROFILE US STANDARD ATMOSPHERE 1976 ALTITUDE [km] 80 60 40 20 0

0.0% 20.0% 40.0% 60.0% 80.0%

100.0% PERCENT OF SEA LEVEL DENSITY ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1 SUNRISE FROM SPACE From STS-47 (JSC-NASA)

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1 C. SURVEY OF PLANET EARTHS ATMOSPHERE (cont)

Importance of Earth's atmosphere Overall Dimensions of Earth's atmosphere Comparison with other components of Earth System ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

1 ESTIMATED MASSES of EARTH SYSTEM COMPONENTS [Source: J.Y. Wang, 1975] ATMOSPHERE HYDROSPHERE LITHOSPHERE EARTH

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 MASS [1 E 21 kg] 0.05137 1.4300 5.983 % BY

MASS 0.070% 19.277% 80.653% 7.4182 100.000% 1

D. WEATHER-CLIMATE ELEMENTS What we need to Know Weight (mass), Energy, Constituents, Motion.

Observed Weather-Climate Elements AIR PRESSURE

AIR TEMPERATURE ATMOSPHERIC HUMIDITY PRECIPITATION CLOUD TYPE, AMOUNT WINDS (SPEED & DIRECTION) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1

MADISONS CURRENT WEATHER Madison Weather at 1000 AM CDT TUE JUN 18 2002 Updated twice an hour at :05 and :25 Sky/Weather: SUNNY Temperature: 70 F (21 C) Dew Point: 57 F (13 C) Relative Humidity: 63% Wind: SE9 MPH

E. PROBING THE ATMOSPHERE Surface vs. Aloft

Locations Problems Surface Weather Station Human observer, Thermometers, barometers, rain gauges, wind instruments, etc.

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1 Traditional Surface Weather Station ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 1

Automated Weather Station (ASOS) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 NWS & FAA Automatic Weather Stations ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

2 Automated Weather Buoy ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 First Order Stations & Cooperative

Observer Network (National Climate Data Center, 2001) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 E. PROBING THE ATMOSPHERE (cont.) Other Observation

Tools/Platforms Need for Rugged instruments Remote sensing ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2

Weather Kites (ca. 1894) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 Aircraft Weather Observations (ca. 1934) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

2 Radiosonde ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 Radiosonde (cont.)

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2 Radiosonde (cont.) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 2

RADIOSONDE LOCATIONS ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Stratospheric Balloons ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

3 Meteorological Rockets (Rocketsondes) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Weather Radar

See Pg. 344-351 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Principles of Weather Radar (in reflectivity mode) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

3 Weather Radar (cont.) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Weather Radar (cont.)

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Principles of Weather Radar (in velocity or Doppler mode) See Fig. 14.18 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

3 NWS DOPPLER RADAR SITES ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 3 Current Radar Reflectivity

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Weather Satellites and the Space Science & Engineering Center (SSEC) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

4 See Fig. 16.2 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Early GOES Satellite

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Geosynchronous Satellite Imaging Field of View ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4

ATS-III in 1968 ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Recent GOES Satellite ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

4 GOES-11 in 2000 ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Nighttime lights from DMSP Satellites

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 4 Visible vs. IR Images ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5

Current Visible Satellite Image Clouds Clouds ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 Current Infrared Satellite Image

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 Current Water Vapor Satellite Image ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5

Man Computer Data Acquisition System (McIDAS) at SSEC/UW-Madison ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 See Fig. 16.1 Moran & Morgan (1997)

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 TIROS in 1960s

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 Polar Orbiting (POES) Satellite NOAA-M Summer 2002 GFSC-NASA ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5

MODIS in 2000 (Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 5 MODIS

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 Wind Profiler (FSL) See Pg. 352 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

6 Wind Profiler Network (FSL) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 F. VISUALIZING THE WEATHER: THE SURFACE WEATHER MAP

Meaning of synoptic weather analysis synoptic: syn = same + optic = to see Goal of synoptic weather analysis Requirements for synoptic weather analysis Same time of observation

Uniform instruments & observation techniques ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 MAP of TIME ZONES U.S. Naval Observatory, 1996

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 F. THE SURFACE WEATHER MAP (cont.) Historical perspective First weather map in 1819 of 1783 Storm;

Early U.S. Weather maps in 1870s. ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 Surface weather map Sep. 1872 ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

6 Surface weather map June 2002 ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 F. THE SURFACE WEATHER MAP (cont.)

Interpretation of modern surface weather maps where... ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6

Sample Modern Weather Map Figure I.3, Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 6 ON THE SURFACE WEATHER MAP Pressure

systems Isobars (iso + bar) Highs & Lows Winds Circulation around Highs & Lows The Hand-twist Model ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

7 Flow around High Pressure Fig. 9.17 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7

Air Converging Aloft Fig. 9.20 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Flow around Low Pressure Fig. 9.18 Moran & Morgan (1997)

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Air Diverging Aloft Fig. 9.21 Moran & Morgan (1997) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

7 ON THE SURFACE WEATHER MAP Pressure systems Winds Clouds

Mainly around lows Temperature Patterns Isotherms (iso + therms)

Fronts Cold fronts, warm fronts & stationary fronts ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Warm Front ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

7 Cold Front ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Stationary Fronts

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Current Surface Weather Map with Isobars (iso = equal & bar = weight), Fronts and Radar Isobars Isobars

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 7 Clouds Clouds Current Visible Satellite Image ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002

8 Current Temperatures (F) & Isotherms (iso = equal +therm = temperature) ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8

Current Surface Weather Map with Isobars (iso = equal & bar = weight), Fronts and Radar Isobars Isobars ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8

Rule of Thumb! Weather Systems move: From West to East in midlatitudes From East to West in tropics

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8 Yesterdays Surface Weather Map with Isobars (iso = equal & bar = weight), Fronts and Radar Isobars Isobars

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8 Current Surface Weather Map with Isobars (iso = equal & bar = weight), Fronts and Radar Isobars Isobars

ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8 Tomorrow AM Forecast Map ATM OCN 100 Summer 2002 8

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