Atmosphere-Ocean Interaction in Hurricanes Isaac Ginis ...
Progress Towards Developing a Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Framework for Research and Operational Hurricane Models Isaac Ginis B. Thomas, R. Yablonsky, T. Hara University of Rhode Island J.-W. Bao, C. Fairall, L. Bianco NOAA/ESRL Interdepartmental Hurricane Conference, 2011, Miami, FL 1
Wind-Wave-Current Interaction Image courtesy of Fabrice Veron Coupled Atmosphere-Wave-Ocean Framework Red - atmospheric parameters, Green wave parameters, Blue - ocean parameters Hurricane model: air-sea fluxes depend on sea state (Moon et al., 2007) and sea spray (Bao et al, 2011) and include surface current Wave model is forced by sea state dependent wind forcing and includes surface current (Fan et al. 2009)
Ocean model is forced by wind stress that is modified by growing or decaying wave fields (Fan et al. 2010) Effect of Wave Coupling on Wind Stress Surface Roughness Drag Coefficient Sea state dependence is parameterized based on Moon, Ginis & Hara (2007) 4 Wind, Waves and Drag Coefficient in the Experimental
GFDL Coupled Hurricane-Wave-Ocean Model Wind at 35 m Drag Coeff. at 35 m Wave phase speed
Significant Wave height Wind and Current Vectors Near the Hurricane Center Wind/current ratio is not in a proper scale
r r z u(z) u(0) 1 z = ln + M L u* zo u (z ) - wind speed vector at a specific height r
u(0) - wind speed vector at the surface (= ocean current vector) Effect of Ocean Current on Wind Stress U* vs. Wind Speed at 35 m Effect of Ocean Current on Hurricane Intensity Case Study: Hurricane Earl Initial Time: 00 UTC, 30 August, 2010 Effect of Waves on Momentum Budget and Flux into Ocean
Momentum flux into ocean Wind stress air Wave Momentum flux
ocean ocean air wave Momentum Flux Reduction due to Wave Coupling Relative reduction of the
momentum flux to ocean ocean air diff = air air depends on wind stress air , which is not well constrained at high winds. Upper bound of
wind stress Moon et al.(2007) estimate of wind stress 8% reduction
Uncertainty of drag coefficient Upper bound: extrapolation of bulk parameterization Blue: Moon et al. (2007) estimates from coupled wind-wave model Lower bound: observations by Powell et al. (2007) Lower bound of wind
Stress 15% reduction Fan et al. (2010) Effect of Wave Momentum Budget on Hurricane Intensity Case Study: Hurricane Earl Initial Time: 00 UTC, 30 August, 2010 Case Study: Hurricane Earl
Initial Time: 00 UTC, 30 August, 2010 Sensitivity experiments with experimentation GFDL hurricane-wave-ocean model: 1.Without effect of current and wave momentum budget 2. With effect of current, without effect of waves 3.With effect of current, with effect of waves 4.Without effect of current, with effect waves Parameterization of Sea Spray Effect Spume production water droplets are ripped from wave crests by the wind when surface wind exceeds about 7 ms -1.
Droplets range from ~40m to ~1mm in diameter. NOAA/ESRL Sea Spray Parameterization (Fairall et al. 2009, Bao et al. 2011) Input parameters Effect of Sea Spray on Momentum Flux Sea Spray Effect on Drag Coefficient Wave model component - WAVEWATCH III WAVEWATCH III can accurately reproduce observed
hurricane surface wave fields if: - Wind forcing is reduced at very high wind speeds. - Ocean current is explicitly included in the simulation. WW3 significant wave height field (color) at Sept. 15 2:00 UTC. The thick gray line is the flight track. Fan et al. (2009) Significant wave height comparison
between SRA measurements (during this flight) and WW3 results from experiments A, B (with modified wind stress) and C (with modified wind stress and including ocean currents). Comparison between modeled and measured significant wave heights from all flights. Extending WW3 to Finite/Shallow Water
. * Previous version of WAVEWATCH III (v2.2.2) did not work well for water depth less than 30m (grey area below) New version of WAVEWATCH III (v3.1.4) includes improved physics in shallower water. * We are validating the WAVEWATCH III (v3.1.4) results in shallower water against observations (Scanning Radar Altimeter) in collaboration with Ed Walsh. Extending the model to finite/shallow water Hurricane Ivan (2004) significant wave height predictions
WW3 2.22 WW3 3.14 Difference Future Evaluation of WW3 in Shallow Waters using SRA Measurements SRA aircraft track on 3 Oct 2002 during the landfall of Hurricane Lili (from Ed Walsh)
Summary and Future Work Explicit representation of wind-wave-current interaction and sea spray indicate potential important effects on the air-sea momentum fluxes in hurricane conditions. Some components of the developed coupled atmosphere-wave-ocean interaction framework will be implemented into the HWRF and COAMPS-TC models for testing and evaluation in 2011.
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