ATOMIC ATOMIC ELECTRON ELECTRON CONFIGURATIONS CONFIGURATIONS AND AND PERIODICITY PERIODICITY 1 2 Arrangement of Electrons in Atoms Each orbital can be assigned no more than 2 electrons! This is tied to the existence of a 4th quantum number, the electron
spin quantum number, ms. 3 Electron Spin Quantum Number, ms Can Can be be proved proved experimentally experimentally that that electron electron has
has aa spin. spin. Two Two spin spin directions directions are are given given by by m mss where where m mss == +1/2 +1/2 and and -1/2. -1/2. Electron Spin Quantum Number
Diamagnetic Diamagnetic:: NOT NOT attracted attracted to to aa magnetic magnetic field field Paramagnetic Paramagnetic:: substance substance is is attracted attracted to to aa magnetic magnetic field.
field. Substance Substance has has unpaired unpaired electrons electrons.. 4 5 Pauli Exclusion Principle No two electrons in the same atom can have the same set of 4 quantum numbers. That is, each electron has a
unique address. 6 Assigning Assigning Electrons Electrons to to Atoms Atoms Electrons Electrons generally generally assigned assigned to to orbitals orbitals of of successively
successively higher higher energy. energy. For For H H atoms, atoms, EE == -- C(1/n C(1/n22).). EE depends depends only only on on n. n. For For many-electron many-electron atoms, atoms, energy energy depends
depends on on both both nn and and l.l. See SeeFigure Figure8.5, 8.5,page page295 295and andScreen Screen220.127.116.11. 7 Assigning Electrons to Subshells
In H atom all subshells of same n have same energy. In many-electron atom: a) subshells increase in energy as value of n + l increases. b) for subshells of same n + l, subshell with lower n is lower in energy. 8 9 Electron
Filling Order Figure 8.5 10 Writing Writing Atomic Atomic Electron Electron Configurations Configurations Two Two ways ways of of writing writing configs.
configs. One One is is called called the the spdf spdf notation. notation. spdf notation for H, atomic number = 1 1 1s
value of n no. of electrons value of l Writing Writing Atomic Atomic Electron Electron Configurations Configurations Two Two ways ways of of writing
writing configs. configs. Other Other is is called called the the orbital orbital box box notation. notation. 11 ORBITAL ORBITALBOX
BOX NOTATION NOTATION for forHe, He, atomic atomicnumber number== 22 Arrows Arrows 22 depict depict electron electron spin spin 1s 1s
11 ss One electron has n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = + 1/2 Other electron has n = 1, l = 0, ml = 0, ms = - 1/2 12 See Toolbox for Electron Configuration tool. Electron Configurations and the Periodic Table 13 Figure 8.7 Lithium
Lithium 14 Group 1A Atomic number = 3 1s22s1 ---> 3 total electrons 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s 15 Electron Configurations of p-Block Elements
16 Sodium Sodium Group 1A Atomic number = 11 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s1 or neon core + 3s1 [Ne] 3s1 (uses rare gas notation) Note that we have begun a new period. All Group 1A elements have [core]ns1 configurations. 17 Aluminum Aluminum
Group 3A Atomic number = 13 1s2 2s2 2p6 3s2 3p1 [Ne] 3s2 3p1 All Group 3A elements have [core] ns2 np1 configurations where n is the period number. 3p 3s 2p 2s 1s Transition Transition Metals
Metals Table Table 8.4 8.4 All 4th period elements have the configuration [argon] nsx (n - 1)dy and so are d-block elements. Chromium Iron Copper 18 Transition Element Configurations
3d 3d orbitals orbitals used used for for Sc-Zn Sc-Zn (Table (Table 8.4) 8.4) 19 Lanthanides Lanthanides and and Actinides Actinides
20 All these elements have the configuration [core] nsx (n - 1)dy (n - 2)fz or nsx (n - 2)fz and so are f-block elements. Cerium [Xe] 6s2 5d1 4f1 Uranium [Rn] 7s2 6d1 5f3 Only for Ce, Lu, and Gd!!! The rest are like Uranium Lanthanide Element Configurations 21 4f 4f orbitals
orbitals used used for for Ce Ce -- Lu Lu and and 5f 5f for for Th Th -- Lr Lr (Table (Table 8.2) 8.2) 22 23
Transition Metals Cr, Mo (d4) Lose 1 electron from s and bump to d5 Cu, Ag, Au (d9) Lose 1 electron from s and bump to d10 Ion Ion Configurations Configurations 24 To form cations from elements remove 1 or more e- from subshell of highest n [or highest (n + l)]. P [Ne] 3s2 3p3 - 3e- ---> P3+ [Ne] 3s2 3p0
Ion Ion Configurations Configurations 25 To form cations from elements remove 1 or more e- from subshell of highest n [or highest (n + l)]. P [Ne] 3s2 3p3 - 3e- ---> P3+ [Ne] 3s2 3p0 3p 3p 3s 3s
2p 2p 2s 2s 1s 1s Ion Ion Configurations Configurations 26 For transition metals, remove ns electrons and
then (n - 1) electrons. Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6 loses 2 electrons ---> Fe2+ [Ar] 4s0 3d6 Ion Ion Configurations Configurations 27 For transition metals, remove ns electrons and then (n - 1) electrons. Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6 loses 2 electrons ---> Fe2+ [Ar] 4s0 3d6 Fe2+
Fe 4s 3d 4s 3d Ion Ion Configurations Configurations 28 For transition metals, remove ns electrons and then (n - 1) electrons.
Fe [Ar] 4s2 3d6 loses 2 electrons ---> Fe2+ [Ar] 4s0 3d6 Fe2+ Fe 4s 3d 4s 3d Fe3+ 4s 3d
29 Ion Configurations Try and determine what charges the following metals will form. Ti (2 charges) +2, +4 Fe (2 charges) +2, + 3 Sn (2 charges) +2, + 4 Cu (2 charges) +1, + 2
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