Avoid Plagiarism

Avoid Plagiarism

Academic Writing in English Workshop 18th October Emma Arthur, LSS http://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/ writing/science/index.xml Todays Lesson 1 How MOOCs and online courses help you improve your writing? 2 Introduction to significance of errors 3 Language and structure

4 Quoting, paraphrasing and summarising 5 Cohesive devices and synthesis 7 Choosing the correct verb forms 8 Resources MOOC and online free courses 1 MOOC Massive Online Open Courses https:// www.coursera.org/learn/grammar-punctuation/home/welc ome https://www.futurelearn.com/courses/english-for-study

2 Online course writing in the sciences for English language learners http:// www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/science/index.xml Significance of errors in English Seriousness of language errors according to assessors. 1. Word choice i.e. vocabulary. Students need to know subject vocabulary as well as the correct academic vocabulary to express their ideas in English. 2. Incorrect style informal instead of formal

3. Grammar, if it affects meaning. 4. Cohesive words should give good transitions and effective flow of ideas 5. Spelling if incomprehensible 6. Punctuation writing in sentences with no run-ons . Style and word use (1) Academic writing is formal not informal. Never use informal style. Avoid: a. colloquial words and expressions; ""stuff", "a lot of", "thing", "sort of",

b. abbreviated forms: "can't", "doesn't", "shouldn't c. two word verbs: "put off", "bring up" Links for more detailed examples on style: http://www.uefap.com/writing/feature/featfram.htm http://www.nus.edu.sg/celc/research/books/cwtuc/chapter03.pdf Verb tenses in academic writing The three most important verb tenses in English academic writing are: 1. Present simple The research shows

2. Past simple De Young (1987) found that skin cells are . 3. Present perfect Some studies have shown that chromosomes have ... Choosing the correct verb tense The Title Frameshift mutations in gene X cause abnormal notochord development in zebra sh The Introduction a) Present tense for facts

DNA is composed of four nucleotides b) Present perfect tense for previous studies still relevant Johnson et al. have shown that gene X is part of an operon Source: www.aje.com/en/arc/dist/docs/AJE-Choosing-the-Right-Verb-Tense-for-Your-Scientific-Manuscript-2015.pdf Choosing the correct verb tense Introduction (continued) c) The past tense for referring to methods used in earlier research. Smith and Anderson sampled 96 swamps and found 156

distinct dragon fly species. Source: www.aje.com/en/arc/dist/docs/AJE-Choosing-the-Right-Verb-Tense-for-Your-Scientific-Manuscript-2015.pdf Choosing the correct verb tense Results 1. Mainly past tense we detected no reduction in the control sample. 2. Present tense Our results demonstrate 3. Use of two tenses

because no enzymatic activity was detected [past tense] in the absence of magnesium, our results indicate [present tense] that magnesium is [present tense] absolutely required. Source: www.aje.com/en/arc/dist/docs/AJE-Choosing-the-Right-Verb-Tense-for-Your-Scientific-Manuscript-2015.pdf Choosing the correct verb tense Discussion section 1. Use the same rules as the previous sections. 2. Past tense We conclude that gene X is in dispensable for).

3. Future tense The methods reported here will allow for rapid screening. Source: www.aje.com /en/arc/dist/docs/AJE-Choosing-the-Right-Verb-Tense-for-Your-Scientific-Manuscript-2015.pdf Language and structure Language and Structure Specific phrases you use in academic writing have the ability to: Provide the skeleton for your content.

Help structure your essay, i.e. organisation. Guide your reader through your essay. Which part of the report / essay? 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

8 9 This research paper will .. Conclusions that can be drawn are... The following research gives an overview The results suggest... The information suggests It can be concluded that... This research paper will .. This report aims to investigate...

The following recommendations are made... Standard Phrases Standard phrases used in english in research http:// en.fel.zcu.cz/AE%20III%20Guidelines%20for%20 Academic%20Writing/How%20to%20write%20a %20paper/Useful%20phrases.pdf Phrase bank http://www.phrasebank.manchester.ac.uk/intro ducing-work/

Cohesive Words Cohesive words What are they? They are also called linking words or transition words. Examples: however, therefore, in addition, also, but, moreover, etc. Words which enable readers to see the relationships between sentences in a paragraph and words in a sentence. They can be used at the beginning and middle of a sentence. Cohesive words have meaning.

See: http://library.bcu.ac.uk/learner/writingguides/1.33.htm http://www.virtualsalt.com/transits.htm http://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Transitions.html Cohesive words - examples REINFORCEMENT Desktop computers are cheaper and more reliable than laptops. In addition, they are more flexible. RESULT/CONSEQUENCE Prices fell by more than 20% last year. As a result, sales increased by 15%. CONTRAST

The South East of the UK often has the coldest weather in the winter. Conversely, the North West of Scotland frequently has the mildest temperatures. CONCESSION It was a very expensive holiday, the weather was bad and the people werent very friendly. Nevertheless, we would probably go back to the same place. http://www.smart-words.org/linking-words/transition-words.html Identifying and using cohesive words Try this short exercise. http

://www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/grammar/en gineering/transitions/ index.xml Quoting and paraphrasing Quoting, paraphrasing, and summarizing? Quotations must be identical to the original, using a small amount of the source text. They must be attributed to the original author. Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source

material into your own words. A paraphrase must also be attributed to the original source. Paraphrased material is usually shorter than the original passage. Summarizing involves putting the main idea(s) into your own words, including only the main point(s). Once again, it is necessary to attribute summarized ideas to the original source. Summaries are than the original. much shorter Source: https://owl.english.purdue.edu/owl/resource/563/1/ Phrases used in referencing quotes Hoekman and Newfarmer (2005, p. 949) suggest that new research into dementia and its

impact on society needs to take place. Consider using the following after you have given the author's name (and the year or notation): X states that . . . X claims that . . . X asserts that . . . X agrees that . . . X strongly argues . . . X contends that . . . X concludes that . . . X maintains that . . .

According to X . . . Source: www.dlsweb.rmit.edu.au/bus/public/referencing/journals/dir_quotes/intext_2_3authors.ht ml Paraphrasing Paraphrasing involves putting a passage from source material into your own words. How do you go about paraphrasing? How you make a successful paraphrase?

Firstly: Read very carefully the text you are going to write about. Make notes while you are reading: Write down major points of argument, etc. Make sure that you have understood the writers ideas completely - write them down without looking. Or: Use synonyms. Refer to a thesaurus. Consider changing some grammatical elements. Change the sentence pattern/ Reorder the information or ideas. You may state the information in shorter and simpler sentences. Finally:

Compare your version with the original version; make sure that logic of the ideas has not changed. Do not add or leave out important information. Paraphrasing practice Step 1: use synonyms Example: a) Overuse of ground water can lead to pervasive drought. b) Overuse of ground water can cause widespread dryness.

www.culi.chula.ac.th/expeng/howtoparaphrase/step2.htm Your turn use an online thesaurus www.learnersdictionary.com/definition/thesaurus She continued to carry out her duty although she was in poor health. The government has to urgently tackle the continuing unrest in the south. The firm has dismissed experienced staff and replaced them with young people on lower salary.

The mayhem in the south was getting worse because of inefficient policies and abuse of authority. Source: www.culi.chula.ac.th/expeng/howtoparaphrase/step1.htm STEP 2: Change the verb Verb to be should be put in the same tense as that of the verb in the original sentence. Examples: The number of hungry people has increased in the last decade. Step1

The number of starving population has grown in the last decade. Step2 There has been a growing number of starving population in the last decade. OR There has been a growth in the number of starving population over the past 10 years. Examples:

You need the most up-to-date antivirus programs to ensure your hard drive and e-mail are not infected. Step1 You must have the most modern antivirus programs to make sure your hard drive and e-mail are not damaged. OR You must have the most modern antivirus programs to protect your hard drive and e-mail.

Step2 It is necessary (for you) to have the most modern antivirus programs to protect your hard drive and e-mail. (Note: for + pronoun is often omitted.) Your turn: The power plant would aggravate the shortage of water in the area if it was given permission to use up to 50,000 cubic meters of water a day. Step 1 use synonyms Step 2 change the verb

Step1 The power plant would worsen the water shortage in the area if it was allowed to consume up to 50,000 cubic meters of water daily. Step2 Perhaps the power plant would worsen the water shortage in the area if it was allowed to

consume up to 50,000 cubic meters of water daily. Reduce a clause to a phrase and make other necessary changes Examples: Technology is now so potent and pervasive that it seems to be the main driver of social change. Step1 Technology is at present so powerful and widely used

that it appears to be the main driving force of social change. Step2 At present, powerful and widely used technology appears to be the main driving force of social change. Reduce a clause to a phrase and make other necessary changes Your turn:

You need the most up-to-date antivirus programs to ensure your hard drive and e-mail are not infected. Reduce a clause to a phrase and make other necessary changes Step1 You must have the most modern antivirus programs to make sure your hard drive and e-mail are not damaged. OR You must have the most modern antivirus programs to

protect your hard drive and e-mail. Step 2 It is necessary (for you) to have the most modern antivirus programs to protect your hard drive and e-mail. (Note: for + pronoun is often omitted.) b) Delete the relative pronoun (who, which, that) and change the verb to a participle form. (step 2) Examples:

Police held back protesters who attempted to break through the barricades. Step1 Police stopped demonstrators who tried to break through the barriers. Step2 Police stopped demonstrators trying to break through the barriers. BETTER

Demonstrators who tried to breech the barriers were stopped by police. Constructing a paragraph The four elements of a good paragraph (TTEB) A Transition sentence leading in from a previous paragraph to assure smooth reading. A Topic sentence that tells the reader what you will be discussing in the paragraph. Evidence and analysis that supports one of your claims and

that provides a deeper level of detail than your topic sentence. Brief wrap-up sentence that tells the reader how and why this information supports your answer. It connects your reasoning to the question. Working with paragraphs http:// www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/scienc e/paragraphs/1.1.xml

Putting it all together Synthesis Putting it all together To write your research paper you will need to synthesise information by combining ideas across authors and readings. How to Synthesise 1 Identify the thesis or main point(s) of each text. 2 Identify the key ideas used by the author(s) to support these points. Note any theories, methodological approaches, evidence, etc. that the author uses.

3 Restate the ideas in YOUR OWN words. Go to synthesis link on LSS webpage. Tools to improve academic writing

Use a phrasebank / word banks Use a theasurus Use a bilingual and english dictionary Use Google translate (with care) Model essays (for analysis) Bibliography for Improving Academic Practice* Use Mindmanager and Xmind for brainstorming with computer *http://resourcelists.ed.ac.uk/lists/BC0B02D4-FA51-F731-AFA5-AD15E1F52EAB/bibliography.html

Useful resources www.msu.edu/~jdowell/135/transw.html http:// www.monash.edu.au/lls/llonline/writing/scie nce/6.xml https://www.overleaf.com/gallery/tagged/aca demic-journal#. V_44-PmLRhE

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