BALEAP Webinar

BALEAP Webinar

BALEAP Webinar Deak Kirkham University of Leeds Todays issues A case study of a phonological process in English: /t/ glottalisation as in a bit of water as [bw] We suggest a pedagogy of this feature, exploiting it also for the relevant linguistic concepts and for critical thinking

Setting the scene: /t/ glottalisation in word final position Word final /t/ is regularly subject to glottalisation in many dialects of English internationally e.g. fat cat [f k], not hot [n h] However, /t/ is also glottalised word medially as in the famous Betty Botter bought some butter rhyme

Step 1: intervocalic environments Consider the columns below. A allows glottalisation of /t/ intervocalically; B does not. Why? A Water, daughter, greater, heater, better, neater, starter, Chitty-chitty-bang-bang, hypotenuse, critic B

Detain, retain, pre-task, return, perturb, a tailor, co-teacher, hypertension, critique Conclusion 1 Intervocalic /t/ not [] at the beginning of a stressed syllable Or: /t/ [] immediately after a stressed vowel in a two-syllable word Teaching points: identifying syllables; identifying stressed versus non-stressed syllables; the

notion of the inter-vocalic environment; mismatch of graphic and phonic realities; the use of inductive (discovery) approach Step 2: beyond the intervocalic environment Again, taking an inductive approach, compare sets A and B below. A again allows /t/ glottalisation; B not. Why? A Wanted, dinted, fainted, talented panter, Tam OShanter, ranter painting, renting, denting

B Destructive, deductive Laughter, craftier, crofter Waster, tastier, requested Conclusion 2 When preceded by a nasal, /t/ [] as per normal, but not when preceded by a fricative or stop Teaching points: nasals / fricatives as manners

of articulation; a nuance to the context; further practice in inductive thinking; reinforcement of graphic-phonic mismatch Some controlled practice

Photograph, photographic, photographer Systemic, systematic, systematicity Potato, retorted Hospital, hospitality Pontifex, pontificate, pontifical, Critic, criticality, critique Glottal, glottalic, glottalisation Positive, positivity

Recap and revision No /t/ in the onset [= at the beginning] of a stressed syllable can undergo glottalisation Any /t/ which meets the above requirements will not glottalise if preceded by a stop or fricative Teaching points: two rules cover all the examples (in this presentation!); pronunciation has rules and the rules are abstract like grammar

More open practice Which of the written t-s can be pronounced [t]. Which of these can be glottalised? Practice the sentences slowly. Ive got to get a little bit of water in my bottle Three unrelated patients requested critical care treatment in the city hospital The destructive photographer has eaten a potato off the table in the retreat centre ELF considerations

The phonology of glottalisation mirrors to a large extent the phonology of t-flapping in some US dialects In certain contexts this can lead to homophony i.e. winter and winner as [w]; atomic and adamic as [mk]]; atomic and adamic as [mk] In Liverpudlian English, /t/ [s] in similar environments Broader questions Does this need to be taught (even at all?) or will students just pick

it up as they go along? Is this simply awareness raising or does should students be aiming to produce [] in the appropriate places? Should linguistic terminology be used or avoided in teaching such processes? At what level / for what kinds of class might this be taught? What other phonological processes could be treated in this manner? Why such emphasis on grammar but so little on pronunciation grammar in EAP teaching? Should teacher training / development look at such issues? What role for linguistics in language learning / teaching?

Additional comments Positivity and hospitality seem OK to some speakers. Is this to do with ooOoo stress pattern? We dont discuss the related fricativisation of / t/ [s] across word boundaries in Liverpudlian / Irish i.e. got to get a bit of water

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