Basic Instructor Course 1014

Basic Instructor Course 1014

Texas Commission on Law Enforcement Officer Standards and Education (TCOLE) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Basic Instructor Course 1014 WELCOME I will try my best to instruct with facts, humor and simplicity.

I will change the tone in my voice so that you will not fall asleep and drool on the tables. I will NOT make you sit through slides that are the exact copy of the written document you have in front of you. I will treat you, as an adult learner hope you find the humor presented as a means to keeping your mind engaged on the material. I hope to get across the primary variables needed to become an instructor and prepare you for all audiences throughout your career. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla,

Strykeforce and Community Matters. My agreement to you: Student Agrees to: Attend all classes Listen and participate in class TAKE NOTES: Look for Yellow text Be Respectful of Instructor and fellow classmates

Submit all assignments on time Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Revised August 2007 TABLE OF CONTENTS Course Description COURSE OVERVIEW THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS THE DOMAINS OF LEARNING FACTORS AFFECTING LEARNING PHASES OF THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. INSTRUCTOR GUIDES: BASIC INSTRUCTOR CERTIFICATION COURSE This Basic Instructor Certification course is designed to provide the basic concepts of instruction and to increase the quality of professional law enforcement training. This course introduces the student to the teaching-learning process, phases of the teaching-learning process, factors affecting learning, preparing a lesson plan, and methods of instruction.

The students will be taught how to develop and use instructional media to enhance their presentations. In addition, the fundamental techniques of developing testing and evaluation procedures will be presented. Each trainee must demonstrate the basic knowledge and skills required to effectively instruct a lesson during two teaching exercises which will be evaluated by two instructors. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. UNIT ONE The student will be able to list the information needed for self-introduction to the class.

The student will be able to list the teaching performance requirements for successful completion of this course. The student will be able to list the course requirements for attendance and participation. The student will be able to list potential liability factors associated with instructor responsibilities. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to list the information needed for self-introduction to the class and will conduct an

extemporaneous exercise. (see pg. 61 for guidelines) Get up, introduce yourself without time for advanced preparation. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Exercise I Introduce Yourself Name Position Organization

Years in Profession Hobby Teaching Experience Reason for Attending this Course How this Course Will Help in Student's Career

Extemporaneous exercise Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Exercise Two (see pg. 62 for guidelines) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. 1. Select a topic and prepare a lesson plan with instructor approval. 2. Instruct a lesson using that lesson plan within a specified time limit. 3. Implement all four phases of instruction during presentation. 4. Develop an evaluation based on the learning objectives of the lesson. 5. Be critiqued by two course instructors using the instructor

evaluation form enclosed in this lesson guide. Students should be provided a copy of the evaluation form during this unit of instruction. 6. Student must provide course instructors with a copy of the lesson plan for grading. Exercise Three (see pp.63-82 for guidelines) 2. Prepare and use at least two types of instructional aids during the presentation. 3. Instruct a lesson using that lesson plan within a specified time limit. 4. Implement all four phases of instruction during presentation. 5. Develop an evaluation based on the learning objectives of the lesson. 6. Be critiqued by two course instructors. (a) Achieve a minimum standard of three (3) or better in each item in the Instructor Evaluation. (b) Achieve a minimum standard of three (3) on lesson plan.

Student must provide course instructors with a copy of the lesson plan for grading. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. 1. Select a criminal justice related topic and prepare a lesson plan subject to instructor approval. Assignments, Attendance and Written Exam B. Successfully complete student teaching Exercises II and III. C. If a written exam is required by the instructor; the student must obtain a minimum score of 70 on the test. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A. Attend all class sessions according to attendance requirements.

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. List potential liability factors associated with instructor responsibilities Instructor Ethics B. Accuracy of the Information C. Teaching the Stated Objectives D. Testing the Stated Objectives Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A. Instructor Qualification and preparation A.

Failure to properly research topic resulting in presentation of faulty, incorrect, or incomplete information. B. Failure to document (properly cite and or reference author) materials presented in lesson plan, handout materials, or reference sources. C. An instructor cannot prevent all liability, but proper preparation can minimize liability. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Vicarious Liability An employer of an employee who injures someone through negligence while in the scope of employment (doing work

for the employer) is vicariously liable for damages to the injured person. In most states, a participant in a crime (like a hold-up) may be vicariously liable for murder if another member of the group shoots and kills a shopkeeper or policeman. http://dictionary.law.com/Default.aspx?selected=2223 Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Vicarious Liability n. sometimes called "imputed liability," attachment of responsibility to a person for harm or damages caused by another person in either a negligence lawsuit or criminal prosecution. UNIT TWO The student will be able to define the term "learner. The student will be able to compare and contrast the adult learner with the

youth learner. The student will be able to identify the characteristics of the teaching-learning process. The student will be able to define the term instructor. The student will be able to define and describe the teacher-learner relationship. The student will be able to describe the optimum conditions for efficient adult learning. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. INTRODUCTION TO THE TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS The purpose of this unit of instruction is to acquaint the student with the differences between education and learning; the differences between adult learning and child or youth learning; identify the characteristics of the teaching/learning process; define the term instructor; and describe the optimum conditions for efficient adult learning. Class Exercise: Ask students the following questions.

Why did you come to this class? Have you ever taught anyone anything in or out of a formal classroom? Have you ever instructed a hostile crowd and/or led a presentation that involved opposition? Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. THE ADULT TEACHING-LEARNING PROCESS Define the term education and learning. effect changes in knowledge, attitude, skill, and/or behavior of individuals. The educator is the agent of change. The

educator provides the stimulus and reinforcing for learning The educator designs activities to stimulate change and reinforce learning Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Education is an activity undertaken or initiated to The educator is the agent of change. The educator provides the stimulus and reinforcing for learning The educator designs activities to

stimulate change and reinforce learning. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Education is an activity undertaken or initiated to effect changes in knowledge, attitude, skill, and/or behavior of individuals. This result may be brought about through: purposefully educational or training efforts on his part; purposefully educational effort on the part of an instructor; a by-product of a random activity; or through an activity designed to achieve

essentially non-educational purposes. A person who is learning is shaped and led. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Learning emphasizes the person in whom the change occurs or is expected to occur. Learning is a process of discovery 1. Learners learn best when learning by doing 2. Instructors should utilize interactive procedures, such as dialogues Knowledge: Research shows that cigarettes are harmful to your health. Attitude: As a result of this knowledge, we may change our attitude about smoking. Skills: Using problem-solving skills, we may develop methods to help give-up smoking.

Behavioral Change: Short Term Chew nicotine gum in place of smoking Long Term Completely give up smoking Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Example: Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. In the adult classroom environment, both the instructor and the learner are actively and interactively accountable for the education/learning process.

Andragogical, based on the learners current needs, the classroom is a democracy where the responsibility of learning is shared by the instructor and the learner. Adult learners are more self-directed and need to be interdependent 1. Define themselves more in terms of life experiences than youth 2. Expect their experiences to be respected and considered by the instructor in the learning process 3. Self concept has changed dramatically since adolescence 4. Resistance and resentment may occur if not permitted to function as an adult during the learning process Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The theory of teaching adults was termed andragogy Adults were viewed as active participants in a problemsolving process rather than passive receivers of information. The outcome of the problem solving was applied to specific

learning and task-oriented needs. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. ASSUMPTIONS MADE ABOUT LEARNERS Adult learning is a means to an end, a way to solve problems Youth learning is a compilation of general information Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Identifying training needs

Perform needs analysis Determine performance or learning objective standard Compare what is going on now to what should be going on now or in the future Determining if the gap is a skill deficiency or management deficiency The gap provides information to the kind and amount of training needed If the employee does not have the knowledge or skill to do the job, training need is indicated Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

In planning training programs, a need for that training must be present. Need is the difference between how things are and how we want them to be Deciding to begin Setting a goal Assessing interests Seeking information about opportunities for learning the same topic or skill in several settings Choosing the most appropriate knowledge and skill Establishing a desired level

Estimating costs/benefits Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The learner himself An individual (consultant, instructor, resource person) Group (peers, other experts) An object (workbook, programmed text, video program) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Choosing the planner An instructor is an individual who is an expert in a specific topic area and who has developed the skills needed to structure and sequence his knowledge to an audience in an instructional setting. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Define the term Instructor The instructor manages the learning environment in 2 ways. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. 1. Manage to dominate or take charge of; to control

2. Keeps class discussion on topic or ensures relevance The instructor facilitates the learning process Facilitate to act as a resource; to assist in the process Provides opportunity for learners to make use of their own experiences Classroom leader that manages the learners Uses highly non-directive instructional delivery rather than classic pedagogical approach

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Function of the instructor is to guide the learning process and act as a resource List three (3) situations when it is appropriate for the instructor to direct and/or control the activities of the learner. When a step-by-step process, with no deviation from the process, is critical to the outcome. Example: CPR, First Aid 2. When the safety and security of all participants in the learning process are at stake. Example: firearms instruction, pursuit driving 3. When a class discussion gets out of hand, gets off the topic and it is important to return the discussion to the original

topic Respectfully, remind the students it is YOUR class and serious topics as listed above requires that you deliver the information without interruption. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. 1. Describe optimum conditions for efficient adult learning. An efficient learning environment is one in which the learner feels confident and non-threatened Adults should have a positive attitude toward learning Let learners know you will accommodate their needs and limitations as much as possible

Adults should be inspired to learn Give opportunity to understand the direct benefits of the training Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Understand how to apply the learning to their own work or life situation Provide relevant examples and opportunity for application Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Adult learners should understand how they can use what they learn Environment should provide optimum learning opportunities Setting should be convenient and comfortable Setting should accommodate your mode of content delivery Psychological environment should be as comfortable as the physical environment Ensures that the learner gets the most return from instruction Provide learning options

Teaching method should be based on learning objective If learning objective states demonstrate, teach at that level Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Learners need to participate during each class session Give adults opportunities to communicate Keep anxiety (yours and theirs) to a minimum Conditions that create anxiety: Range lesson in cold temps. Importance of learning sought: Everyone involved should Classroom filled with peers/colleagues: Limit peer jokes or inappropriate chatter Classroom with managers and supervisors: Depending on

topic, save sensitive issues for times that allows field officers flexibility in expressing opinions Previous classroom learning experiences: Remind students not every officers believes in the same principles others do e.g. community policing Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A. Allow time for questions, discussion, periodic feedback, and follow-up B. Provides instructor with opportunity to observe student progress UNIT THREE The student will be able to define the term cognitive learning. The student will be able to define the term psychomotor

skill. The student will be able to define the term "affective learning. The student will be able to list at least two (2) examples of topics that are more effective in the cognitive mode. The student will be able to state the interrelationship among the three (3) modes of learning. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. During this unit of instruction the student will obtain a working knowledge of the three (3) domains or modes of learning and their impact on the learning process. Cognitive, psychomotor and affective. Define the term cognitive learning. Examples: Math, science, biology, history of law enforcement Gestalt theory describes cognitive learning as the click of understanding or insight Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Cognitive learning deals with the recall or recognition of knowledge and the development of intellectual abilities and skills. Define the term psychomotor skill". Also known as kinesthetic learning. Psychomotor skills deal with those learning objectives that involve physical activities (such as body movements, hand-eye coordination) in the learning process. Examples: Word processing, drafting, auto mechanics, defensive tactics, firearms Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Define the term affective learning. Examples:

Ethics, sociology, communicative skills, police officer's role in society, human relations training. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Affective learning deals with changes in interest, attitudes, values, and the development of appreciations and adequate adjustment. Sensitivity to human factor in the classroom (Classroom climate) Human values Human relations Emotional conduct and expression Interests Social attitudes Values

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The affective domain includes the following issues or concepts: Affective predispositions Likes and dislikes directed towards the topic/subject B. Likes and dislikes directed toward the instructor, including positive or negative preconceptions about that instructor C. Positive or negative preconceived notions about the subject D. Circumstances surrounding presence in the class

E. Awareness of hidden agenda of social and affective climate created by interaction between teacher and student (example: difference in rank between instructor and student) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Language used in the classroom has an effect upon affect and personality (language that reflects the instructor's attitude toward the students) Examples: Penal Code, Code of Criminal Procedure

Why is cognitive mode more effective in the above examples? What I like to call receive and perceive (Quintero 2014) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Two (2) examples of topics that are more effective in the cognitive mode. UNIT FOUR Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. During this unit of instruction the student will obtain a working knowledge of the factors affecting learning. These factors include student factors, instructor factors and environmental factors. List the instructor factors that affect the learning process.

Personal appearance and Courtesy Self-control Tact Voice Enthusiasm Appreciation of subject hygiene Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Personal qualities: Appropriate language: Inappropriate topics, jokes and derogatory slurs are never professional. Correct use of punctuation, grammar and spelling Knowledge

of subject Thorough preparation Professionalism Instructor/student interaction Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Communicative Skills Amount of sleep Diet and nutrition Health Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. List the physiological factors that affect the learning process.

Stress level of student Emotional state of student Self-confidence Well being Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. List the psychological factors that affect the learning process. List two (2) experiential factors of the learner. Prior List four (4) readiness factors of the learner. Prior

learning Motivation Ability to concentrate Barriers Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. knowledge Prior training Temperature Lighting Sound quality Instructional aids Distractions Room arrangement Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla,

Strykeforce and Community Matters. List six (6) environmental factors that affect the learning process. UNIT FIVE Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. During this unit of instruction, the student will obtain a working knowledge of the four phases of the teachinglearning process: Preparation, presentation, application and evaluation. The student will be able to identify the three (3) elements of the preparation phase. Review objectives of entire learning activity.

Consult and study all reference material available Evaluate factors affecting instruction. These include: 1.Time available 2.Training conditions 3.Availability of assistant instructors. 4.Equipment and facilities D. Rehearse the lesson Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Preparation of instructor Motivate the student Create a desire to learn

Develop understanding of material Stimulate student appreciation of material Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Preparation of the student Secure instructional media and facilities needed. Check lesson plan and facilities prior to class.

Always rehearse your presentations. Students will know if you are not familiar with the content. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Preparation of Classroom Environment Introduction phase Body of material or presentation of teaching points phase Conclusion phase

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to identify the three (3) elements of the presentation phase. The student will be able to define the application phase. The application phase of instruction is defined as: Developing skills or techniques and applying knowledge to problem solving in a way that allows a student to learn while doing. The application phase reinforces the cognitive learning process by: Allowing for the support of trial and error thinking. Allowing the student to learn new material by associating

new information with one's experiential background. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to explain how the application phase is used to reinforce psychomotor/ skill learning. Gaining a skill concept Developing the skill Practicing the skill for accuracy and speed Skills are best developed by: Spending 10% of teaching time telling the student about the skill, 25% of the teaching time demonstrating skill

correctly, 65% of the remaining teaching time in proper guided practice. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The application phase reinforces the psychomotor/skill learning process by: The student will be able to define the evaluation phase. In other words, the instructor is determining how much learning has taken place. The student will be able to list the three (3) elements of the evaluation phase. The three elements of the evaluation phase are: Preparing an evaluation instrument Administering an examination or performance review.

Evaluating the results. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The evaluation phase is the measurement of a student's level of retention and understanding of training material. UNIT SIX Define the term learning goal. A Learning Goal is a broad imprecise description of what is to be learned. Tells students what they will learn during a particular block of instruction. Tells what the instruction is about. The student uses the Learning Objective to accomplish the Learning Goal.

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. During this unit of instruction the student will obtain a working knowledge of difference between a learning goal and a learning objective. Students will be able define a learning objective and its proper use. Students will be able to list the parts of a proper prepared learning objective. Define the term learning objective. (definitions and sources) Learning objectives are a description of specific performances that the learners should be able to exhibit before they are considered competent in the area. Learning objectives are guides for both the instructor and the student to use to determine whether or not the goal has been reached.

Learning objectives are statements that describe specific steps required to reach the goal of a particular lesson or course. Each objective must be precisely stated, clearly defined, observable and measurable. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A learning objective is an outcome of instruction; it is not a description of the instructional process. In the usual situation, a performance objective consists of three elements: the task (action); the conditions under which the action is to be performed; and the standards of criteria of

performance. (Criminal Justice Instructional Techniques, Klotter, Rosenfeld, Charles C. Thomas, Springfield, IL. 1979.) Statements of operational behavior required for satisfactory performance of a task, the conditions under which the behavior is usually performed, and the criteria for satisfactory performance. (Nystrom, Bobbs-Merrill Education Publishing, 1977.) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Learning objectives must include a description of the procedures needed to achieve predetermined levels of proficiency and should include any operational behavior which must be achieved to complete the training. A Learning Objective is: A measurable student performance (visible or

audible) to a precise standard under well-defined conditions. Provides the foundation upon which the lesson plan is built. Learning Objectives tell the student exactly: 1. What they must do to pass the course. 2. How well they must do it. 3. Under what conditions. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. An exact description of: Instructors can use Learning objectives to: Show job relevance to the Help motivate students to

training learn (what is needed to pass course) Keep themselves on track while teaching Evaluate student progress Indicate changes needed in future classes Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Students can use Learning Objectives to know what they can expect from a block of instruction, and what is expected from them. Provide a solid foundation for the selection or design of instructional materials, content and methods.

Provide a set of guidelines or direction. (If you do not know where you are going, it is difficult to decide the best way to get there.) Assist the trainer in evaluating whether or not the objective has been achieved. Provide students with a means to organize their own efforts toward achieving the objectives. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Define the three (3) components of a learning objective and properly use them in developing a valid learning objective.

The performance 1. The key element to a well written learning objective 2. Must be definitive. The standard, and Special conditions Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Learning objectives have three (3) main components. Performance Must be able to measure the performance or the results.

Must be able to see or hear it driving writing talking (explanation). Or, must be able to see the results if performance is mental or too fast to see. a. mathematical computations b. shooting Example: The student will run. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Simply what you want the students to do to show

they have learned. Speaking of performance and needed results! Presentation created and The Standard is the minimum level of acceptable performance. Tells the student how well, how much, how far, how long, etc. This is the pass/fail line; anything below this level means the student fails. YOU MUST DEFINE A STANDARD SO STUDENTS KNOW WHAT IS EXPECTED OF THEM. 1. Without a standard, students may assume they must perform error

free. 2. The standard sets the bar for the student. Example: The student will run one and one half miles in 15 minutes or less. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Standard. How well the learner must perform in order to be considered acceptable. Conditions. The important conditions under which the performance is to occur. Anything, other than the norm than could effect the students performance or ability to meet the standard. These can be environmental, physical, or mental

Can be omitted from Learning Objective is student will only be performing under normal conditions. Example: The student will run one and one half miles in 15 minutes or less carrying a shotgun and wearing combat boots. Given a set of field notes from an accident (including measurements, photographs, evidence log, subject and witness interviews, etc.), the student will write a complete accident report. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Learning Objectives A well written Learning objective will contain: 1. Measurable performances 2. Precise standards

3. Well defined conditions Answer the question: What should the student learn, be able to do, or what new behavior should be evident as the result of the training? Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to write at least three properly developed learning objectives using the three components. Performance Quiz 1. Understand the principles of defensive tactics. 2. Name the five levels of the use of force continuum found in department policy 01.20.05.25. 3. Analyze the facts of an internal affairs investigation and recommend a disposition.

4. Completely disassemble, clean, and re-assemble the Colt Government Model pistol. 5. Appreciate the environment factors that lead to high crime areas. Only 2,3, and 4 are valid Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Which of the following Learning Objectives use valid action verbs? Tips for writing Learning Objectives 2. 3. 4. Be brief and to the point; include only one major item in each learning objective. Use an action verb to describe the expected result of the training. Specify a time frame or target date for completion.

Specify limits in the use of resources (manuals, people, equipment, etc.). Make Learning objectives realistic in terms of previous performance, total responsibilities, and existing resources. Include enough challenge in an improvement or change objective to make it worth formulating. Write learning objectives that are supportive and consistent with the overall lesson or material taught. Choose areas over which the student has control or influence. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

1. UNIT SEVEN Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. During this unit of instruction, the student will obtain a working knowledge of lesson plans and lesson plan construction, in order to structure and improve teaching activities. Have you attended a training course where the instructor seemed unorganized? Was there something missing from the presentation? Was the instructor hard to follow? A lesson plan is a critical part of any effective training program.

When correctly written, the lesson plan will have all the information the instructor needs to conduct a quality training program. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to define the importance and purpose of a lesson plan. Lesson plans are important to the organization and presentation of the material to be taught. The lesson plan sets forth the objectives the student is to obtain. The lesson plan sets forth the content the student will learn. The lesson plan sets forth the means or

methods by which the student will achieve the objectives and learn the content of the course. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. A lesson plan is a document that sets forth specific information the instructor is to teach and the student is to learn. There are various things the instructor must do in preparing the Lesson Plan. Review the task analysis and needs assessment. Begin to develop learning objectives for the lesson to be taught. Identify resource information on the lesson

topic. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to discuss the components of a properly prepared lesson plan. Course Title identifies the course to be taught. Lesson Title identifies the specific lesson that is to be taught. Instructor identifies the person or persons who will instruct the course. Prepared By identifies the person or persons who prepared the lesson plan. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

A properly prepared lesson plan has many components. Each serves a specific purpose. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Date identifies the date the lesson plan was developed and written. It serves as a baseline for lesson plan updates. This is important to include. Time Allotted identifies the amount of time required to

adequately present the lesson. It may also indicate where the particular lesson fits into the overall curriculum. Target Population identifies the general description of the students for whom the lesson was designed. It may include a description of job duties, work facilities, or job experience. Number of Students indicates the maximum or minimum number of students for which the lesson can be effectively presented. Space Requirements Indicates the size of the room, number of rooms, and/or seating arrangements necessary to effectively teach the lesson. Performance Objectives a statement describing the intended outcome(s) of the lesson in terms of the performance expected from the student.

Evaluation Procedure states how the students progress toward the learning objectives will be measured (written test, oral test, demonstration, etc.). Evaluation procedure should provide documentation for all learning objectives. Method/Techniques lists all training methods/techniques (lecture, group discussion, role play, etc.) that will be used in the lesson delivery. Training Material lists all the training aids (overheads, PowerPoint presentation, transparencies, videos, student handouts, etc.) that will be needed to instruct the lesson. Equipment and Supplies lists any and all equipment

(computer, flip charts, dry erase board, markers, projectors, sound system, etc.) needed to instruct the lesson . Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Student Materials lists any materials the student will need to bring with them or will need to be supplied to the student for the course. References this is a very important area. It documents the resources used in the research for the course. This documentation can be useful in litigation or justification of the lesson and material to your agency. Presentation Guide where you write the body of your lesson plan.

Notes to Trainer where you write any instructional notes for the delivery of information during the lesson. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to list the general stages in lesson plan development. Introduction Presentation Application Summary Evaluation Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

There are five general stages in the development of a lesson plan. The Introduction Stage how will the lesson be introduced to the student. Explains the lesson material and its importance to the student. It helps motivate the student and create an interest in the course. It identifies and explains the learning objectives to the student in order that they know what will be expected. The introduction sets the tone for the class and the lesson.

It ties the lesson topic to the student and their on-thejob tasks and performance. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Grabs the attention of the student for the course material. Prepares the student for the lesson material and puts them at ease. The Presentation Stage knowledge of adult learning theories should be incorporated into the lesson plan. Explains, demonstrates, and instructs the student one step at a time. Use simple language. Explain, demonstrate, or instruct one step at a

time. Do not include too much information at one time. Give students time to digest what was taught. Dont do all the talking. Develop questions for student input. Get student participation. (See curriculum document for complete list) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The Application Stage students are given the chance to use the information they have been given. (See curriculum document for complete list) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Encourage the student to ask questions. Develop activities that allow the student to apply the information learned in a safe, real environment. Correct errors and omissions as the student makes them. Have the students tell you how and why, stressing the main points taught. The Summary Stage gives students time to gather information they may have missed. Be flexible about the timing Review the learning objectives. Review and summarize the main points of the lesson.

Let students summarize when possible. Do not introduce new material or re-teach the lesson. End with a statement to motivate the student to use the information or skills to improve their performance. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The Evaluation Stage how will the students performance be judged. Gives feedback to the student in the form of their performance.

Put the student on their own to do the job or apply the information through written or performance tests. Consider evaluating students on the participation in course activities. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. There are four major types of lesson plan formats. Outline Outline Narrative Outline Narrative Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla,

Strykeforce and Community Matters. Sentence Which format should I use? The instructors experience level. The instructors knowledge of the subject matter. The instructors experience level and knowledge of the subject helps determine the type format to use. Outline and Sentence outlines are suitable for experienced instructors who are knowledgeable in the subject to be taught.

Narrative Outline and Narrative are for inexperienced instructors or instructors who are not knowledgeable of the subject matter. (see pp. 42-43 for detailed description) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Lesson Plan Sequencing 4 Types of Sequencing (see p. 44 for details) Simple to complex. General to specific Concrete to abstract. Chronological.

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. It is important that information in the lesson plan be properly sequenced. Improper sequencing can lead to confusion for the student and instructor Improper sequencing can also hinder the instructors ability to evaluate the students performance. During this unit of instruction, the student will obtain a working knowledge of the basic methods of instruction and factors to consider when choosing the appropriate instructional method. Each method has advantages and disadvantages. A combination of methods is usually most effective.

Instructor Led Lecture Demonstration Practical Exercises Practice Team Practice Role Play Independent Discussion Additional Methods and Devises

Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to discuss at least three methods of instruction. Match method with objectives, subject matter etc. and know your audience. The key to improving our instruction is to know what methods of instruction to use when.

Pertinence Effectiveness Familiarity with the method Time and physical facilities Cost Size of group Type of Training Attitudes of participants Participant motivation Your personality Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to discuss the techniques used to reinforce learning. Illustration Practice

and drill Role playing Conference Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Question/answer The student will be able to define the purpose of evaluation. In an instructional setting there are two purposes for evaluation: To appraise instructor performance To assess student performance. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

During this unit of instruction, the student will obtain a working knowledge of the basic techniques of developing tests and evaluations. The student will be able to differentiate between objective and subjective testing. The student will be able to discuss the basic considerations when writing a test question and how to apply the learning objectives to testing. The reasons for appraising instructor performance are: To improve the quality of instruction To validate quality instruction To identify less than quality instruction The reasons for assessing student performance are:

To determine mastery. Reinforce learning by providing indicators (feedback) for continued coverage. To measure students understanding of material. Are students learning what you expected them to learn? Reveals areas of weakness. To motivate students and structure academic efforts. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Tests

evaluate whether the student has learned the information. Tests do not evaluate that learning has actually changed behavior or attitudes. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. The student will be able to define learning evaluations (tests). Devises of many kinds that determine the amount and quality of learning that has taken place during a block of instruction. The student will be able to differentiate between objective and subjective testing.

Types of objective tests include: (How many objective tests exist?) 1. Short answer 2. True/false 3. Matching 4. Multiple choice Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. An objective test is one that measures recall and understanding of materials. An objective test asks the students to recall specific facts or information that is then evaluated based upon a predetermined set of responses. Use when highly reliable test scores must be obtained efficiently. They relate a more impartial evaluation as well as a quicker method for the reporting of test scores. A subjective test is one that the answers are subject to the

evaluation of the grader. The grader decides if the answer approximates a specific answer. Can have several different answers. Requires employment of different cognitive levels in formulating the answer 1. Written communication skills 2. Original answers 3. Exploration of students attitude vs. information recall An example of a subjective test would be an essay test format. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Compare and contrast at least three types of evaluative testing methods. True/False Fill in the blank/short answer Matching Essay Performance Tests General suggestions for construction of test questions Devote adequate time to preparation of test items. Closely examine each point of the objective and devise an appropriate item to measure it. More time spent in test item construction will save time when the test is administered and will provide more reliable information whether the student learned what was expected.

Remember, the purpose of the test is to measure the student's knowledge of the course objectives. It should test no more or no less. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Multiple Choice Relevance: Logically relate to course objectives. Reliability: Consistency and accuracy over time. Validity: The interpretations of the results are appropriate for making decisions about achievement. Balance: Test covers main ideas and important concepts in proportion to emphasis they received in class. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

4 basic considerations utilized when writing a test question. Learning Objectives= Test Construction Knowledge: Test of memory, recall facts, details and concepts. Comprehension: Understanding the purpose or meaning of something. Application: Use of concepts to solve a problem. Analysis: Taking something apart. Synthesis: Combining various elements or parts into a structured whole. Evaluation: Understanding all the details to make a judgment decision based upon reasoning.

(see pp. 54-55 for detailed information Blooms taxonomy) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Blooms taxonomy is made up of six levels: Instructional Media Instructional media makes the subject matter more understandable. Instructional media helps the student to learn more effectively. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Instructional media is any materials or graphic, photographic, electronic or mechanical aids that assist the instructor in presenting his/her subject. Students learn more effectively and quickly Students use more of their five senses It is easier for the student to comprehend Students retain material longer

Clarifies the written or spoken word Emphasis is added to the points the instructor is making Provides uniformity of learning by description or means of demonstration Develops continuity of thought Assists the instructor in class management

Provides a more clear understanding of the oral presentation. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. State at least 3 reasons for using instructional media. Effective instructional media should be: Appropriate for the subject and teaching points Able to be seen by the whole class Neat, understandable and accurate

Simple to comprehend and include only specific points that do not confuse the student Easy to use by the instructor Portable and durable Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Basic instructional aids and equipment: Computer with PowerPoint software

LCD projection unit Video visualizer (ELMO) Dazzle or moviemaker (see pp. 57-59 for detailed information on instructional aids and equipment) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Overhead projector Overhead transparencies VHF video recorder/player Video monitor Flip chart Chalkboard (colored chalk) Handouts Marker boards Basic instructional aids and equipment: Computer with PowerPoint software

LCD projection unit Video visualizer (ELMO) Dazzle or moviemaker (see pp. 57-59 for detailed information on instructional aids and equipment) Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. Overhead projector Overhead transparencies VHF video recorder/player Video monitor Flip chart Chalkboard (colored chalk) Handouts Marker boards You will be provided 16 hours to prepare the following: lesson plans,

media programs, and presentations for required student teaching exercises. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters. learning objectives, References Traffic Institute. 1982. Civil liability and the police. Evanston. Illinois: Northwestern University. pp. 30 Verduin. John R., Harry G. Miller and Charles E. Greer. 1977. Adults teaching adults: Principles and strategies. Austin, Texas: Learning Concepts. Wlodkowski, Raymond J. 1986. Enhancing adult motivation to learn. San Francisco: Jossey-Bass. Inc. Presentation created and prepared by Gilbert De la Portilla, Strykeforce and Community Matters.

Texas Commission on Law Enforcement 2007. Basic Instructor Course. Texas

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