Basic Safety Orientation Training

Basic Safety Orientation Training

FHM TRAINING TOOLS This training presentation is part of FHMs commitment to creating and keeping safe workplaces. Be sure to check out all the training programs that are specific to your industry. Safety Orientation Training Hazard Communication Respirators Personal Protective

Equipment Hearing Conservation Fall Protection Lockout Tagout Confined Space Fire / Fire Extinguishers Basic First Aid (not certified training) Blood Borne Pathogens Heat/Cold Stress Good Safety Practices

Hazard Communication The Right To Know Chemical Hazards Written Program Training Container Labels Material Safety Data Sheets (MSDS) Inventory List Chemical Hazards

Flammable/Explosion Flash point LEL Toxic/Poison Acute / Chronic Local / Systemic Routes of entry Reactive Corrosive

Container Labels Shipping Labels Manufacturers Warnings NFPA Diamond / HMIS Labels Health, Fire, and Reactive Hazards NFPA Diamond Material Safety Data Sheets

Identity of Material and Manufacturer Hazardous Ingredients Physical and Chemical Characteristics Fire and Explosion Hazard Data Reactivity Data Health Hazard Data (Limits, Symptoms, etc.) Precautions for Safe Handling Control Measures and First Aid Respiratory Hazards Toxic Dusts, fumes, and mists (particulate) Gases and vapors

Oxygen deficiency or enrichment Immediately Dangerous to Life and Health (IDLH) Respiratory (Occupational) Exposure Limits Permissible Exposure Limit - OSHA PEL Threshold Limit Value - ACGIH TLV Time-Weighted-Average - TWA Short Term Exposure Limit - STEL

Ceiling Limit - TLV-C or PEL-C Skin notation Protection for a Working Lifetime Respiratory Protection Air-Purifying (APR) Dust Mask Half Face Full Face Powered AirPurifying Respirators (PAPR)

Supplied Air (SAR) Air-line Hood style Facepiece style Half Face Full Face Escape provisions Self Contained Breathing Apparatus (SCBA) Respirator Protection Factors

(PF) Air-Purifying (APR)1 Dust Mask Half Face Full Face - Supplied Air (SAR)2 Air-line 10 10 50

Powered Air- Purifying Respirators (PAPR) 100 1- Negative pressure in face piece Hood style - 100 Facepiece style - 1000 Escape provisions >10,000 Self Contained Breathing Apparatus

(SCBA) - >10,000 Positive Pressure in face piece 2- Limitations Air-Purifying (APR) Concentration of contaminant (PF) Oxygen level (19.5%-23.5%) Cartridge useful life Warning properties (some substances cant be detected or

are too toxic) Supplied Air (SAR) Concentration of contaminant (PF) Must provide Grade D air source More cumbersome / unwieldy Mobility (air line style) Length of work time (SCBA style)

Respirator Program Elements Written Procedures Selection of Respirators Training of Users Fit-Testing Initial Annual Changing brand Cleaning and Storage

Maintenance Inspection Work Area Surveillance Medical Fitness Program Auditing Using Certified Respirators NO BEARDS No Glasses with Full Face Personal Protective Equipment

Required when engineering or administrative controls are inadequate. Must be properly selected and worn. Training is required. Pre-Job analysis Hazard Assessment Head Protection Hard Hats (Safety Helmets) Class A - Limited voltage protection Class B - High voltage protection Class C - No voltage protection Class D - Firefighters helmet

Bump Caps Not recommended Eye and Face Protection Safety Glasses (minimum requirement) Goggles - better protection for chemicals, splashes, dusts, or projectiles. Face Shield - better for splashes or projectiles Chemical Splash Hood shoulder length or longer Hand and Foot Protection

Gloves / sleeves General duty Cotton, leather Sharp objects Leather, kevlar Cuts Kevlar Chemical Multiple types Shoes / Boots Steel toe Compression,

puncture Metatarsal guards Protects top of foot behind toe Chemical resistant Prevents contact with chemicals Chemical Protective Clothing Qualities

Types Puncture resistance Full Encapsulating suit Wear resistance Splash suit Tactility Coveralls Degradation Hoods

Permeation Gloves Boots Boot / Shoe covers Protective Clothing Materials Tyvek (white suits) dusts, dirt, grease Saranex

acids, caustics, solvents coated tyvek, better for mild chemicals Polyethylene alternative to tyvek PVC rain suits, splash suits

moderate chemicals Neoprene Butyl rubber resists gases Nomex flame protection Kevlar cut protection MANY OTHERS

Levels of Protection Level A full encapsulating suit SCBA or SAR Gloves, boots, hat, Chemical Suit (CPC) Air purifying respirator Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed etc. as needed

Level B Chemical Suit (CPC) SCBA or SAR Gloves, boots, hat, etc. as needed Level C Level D Work uniform Hard hat Safety glasses Gloves, etc. as needed

Hearing Conservation Hearing Loss Disease Age Excessive Noise workplace environmental recreational Other Effects of Noise

Elevated blood pressure, stress, sleeplessness Noise Levels Measured in decibels (dB) Whisper - 10-20 dB Speech - 60 dB Noisy Office - 80 dB

Lawnmower - 95 dB Passing Truck - 100 dB Jet Engine- 150 dB OSHA Limit (PEL) - 85 dB Noise Exposure Continuous constant level over time Intermittent levels vary over an area or start and stop

Impact sharp burst of sound (nail gun, hammer) Hearing Protectors Ear Plugs - preferred (NRR* 20-30 dB) Ear Muffs - 2nd choice (NRR 15-30 dB) Double Hearing Protectors (plugs and muffs) (NRR 30-40 dB) used for levels over 115 dB (*NRR = Noise Reduction Rating - an approximate decibel reduction provided by the protector in lab conditions. Subtract 7 dB for approximate real world attenuation) Audiometric Testing

Initial Testing - Baseline for reference Annual Testing - periodic monitoring Performed when exposure exceeds OSHA limit Assures protection is adequate Evaluation is age-adjusted Fall Protection Any open edge higher than six (6) feet Guardrail System Safety Net System Personal Fall Arrest System

Any fixed ladder higher than 20 feet Ladder Safety Device (with body harness) Safety Cage with offset landings every 30 feet Personal Fall Arrest System Full Body Harness Lanyard (regular or retractable) Shock Absorber

Locking Snap Hooks (no single action) Lifeline (as needed) Anchorage Must hold 5000 lbs. Fall Clearance (not a sale!) Scaffolding Erected by Competent Person Sound, rigid footing No overloading

Scaffold Grade Planking Railings / toeboards Tie-off if no railing Access ladders Get down from rolling scaffold to move it No portable ladders on scaffolding Portable Ladders

Use only approved ladders Inspect before use Use both hands One person only Firm, level footing Do not use as platform or scaffold Use fall arrest if > 6 ft. working from ladder

Secure top of extension ladders Extend 3 feet above access or working level Use 4:1 lean ratio Aerial Lifts Secure lanyard to anchor point Never use a ladder from a lift Dont over extend boom lifts Follow manufacturers safety notices

Lockout/Tagout Control of Hazardous Energy Electrical Mechanical Thermal Pressure Chemical Kinetic / Gravity Prevention of injuries caused by release of Hazardous Energy Lockout Lock device applied to energy control point A positive means to secure isolation point

Individual responsible for own lock & key Preferred method Tagout Tag device applied to energy control point Used in conjunction with Lockout Used when Lockout not feasible Name, date, time, purpose, etc. Performing Lockout/Tagout Preparation

Identify the energy source(s) Determine how to control the energy Dissipate residual energy Block components subject to movement Shutdown Equipment Follow normal stopping procedures Allow motion to stop Applying Lockout/Tagout Close or shut off all energy sources Apply locks and/or tags Verify isolation - Try Try the switch Try the start button

Contractors may need assistance or procedures to identify all energy sources Removing Lockout/Tagout Remove tools and equipment Replace guards and covers Check for all clear Remove your locks and tags Other locks & tags may remain Notify responsible party of completion

Confined (Permit) Space Entry OSHA Definition Limited means of entry or exit Not intended for human occupancy May / could contain a hazardous atmosphere Contains engulfment or entrapment hazards Contains other hazards Tanks, vessels, storage hoppers, pipelines, manholes, tankers, bins, excavations, etc. Atmospheric Hazards Oxygen Deficiency / Enrichment - below 19.5% or above 23.5%

Flammable / Explosive - LEL above 5% Toxic - above PEL, unknown, or IDLH Control with testing, ventilation, and/or PPE Other Hazards Hazardous Energy - Lockout / Tagout Electrical, Thermal, Mechanical, Pressure, Chemical Entrapment - plan for avoidance and retrieval Engulfment - plan for avoidance and retrieval Rescue - plan for retrieval, must have Attendant

and communications Confined Space Permits Facility issued Contractor issued Supervisor prepares Sign In / Out Atmospheric testing Hazard controls Renew when expired

Entrants, Attendants and Supervisors Entrants Enter the space Perform the work Exit on Attendants orders Attendants Be present

Supervisor Perform air monitoring Control other hazards Complete permit continuously Maintain headcount Maintain contact with entrants Orders evacuation, activates rescue Prevent unauthorized entry

Confined Space Ventilation Positive - blowing air into the space, exhaust is through openings Negative - pulling air out of the space, exhaust is through blower Explosion-proof equipment if needed Purging / Inerting - inert gas (nitrogen, carbon dioxide, argon) used to replace oxygen atmosphere in space for HOT work Special Equipment - Confined Space Entry

Full Body Harness often required Lifeline (Retrieval Line) Mechanical Retrieval System - required for vertical entries exceeding five (5) feet Fall Protection Anchorage Testing meters Oxygen Combustible gas Toxic chemicals Elements of Fire Elements of Combustion (Fire Triangle) All required for a fire to occur. Trend is to include Chemical Reaction as fourth element (Fire Tetrahedron).

Fire Properties & Chemistry Solids do not burn. Gases burn. Fuel must release gases/vapors may require heating. (Ray Bradbury Fahrenheit 451) Fuel gases must mix /w Oxygen in proper proportion (Lean / Rich - Flammable Range). Must be a source of ignition.

Fire Terms Flash Point Flammable Range (Lean/ Rich) LEL/UEL (LFL/UFL) Ignition Temperature Flammable vs. Combustible liquids Bonding and Grounding Classes of Fires

Classes of Fires Fire Extinguishant Materials Water - class A only - cools /removes heat Dry Chemical - class A, B, or C - interferes with chemical reaction Carbon Dioxide - class A, B, or C (usually C) removes Oxygen / smothers fire Halon (being phased out - ozone) class A, B, or C (usually C) - removes Oxygen / smothers fire Metl-X - class D only - specialized dry chemical for metal fires Foam Class B, holds down vapors

Fire Extinguisher Features Operating lever Locking pin Pressure gauge Discharge nozzle Label type of extinguisher (A,B,C,D) instructions Fire Extinguisher Use

Select correct extinguisher for class of fire Pull the locking pin Aim at base of fire Squeeze and hold the discharge lever Sweep from side to side CAUTION - monitor the area, the fire could reignite Always notify supervisor of extinguisher use so it can be replaced or recharged and the fire investigated Basic First Aid

Shock Lay victim down Keep victim warm Keep victim calm Get assistance Bleeding Use clean bandage Apply pressure Elevate wound Burns 1st Degree - redness

only, flush with cool water 2nd Degree - blisters, place damp bandage, use no ointments 3rd Degree - white or charred, use dry bandage 2nd or 3rd - get medical attention Basic First Aid (cont.) Fractures Closed fractures - (no

protruding bones), immobilize Open fractures immobilize, control bleeding Head and Neck Injuries DO NOT MOVE VICTIM Chemical Burns Flush with water for 15 minutes minimum Bites and Stings

Be aware of bee sting allergies Poisonous bites seek medical attention Bloodborne Pathogens Aids Hepatitis Hep-B vaccines for designated persons

No contact with blood or body fluids Wear protective equipment, especially gloves & safety glasses Hospital / Laboratory Waste - Red Bag Sharps disposal Temperature Stress - Cold Dress in layers Limit exposed skin Frostbite - localized frozen tissue Do not rub area, limit motion, warm slowly Hypothermia - lowered body temperature Remove wet clothing, use dry blankets

Seek medical attention Temperature Stress - Heat Sunburn - keep skin covered Heat Cramps - drink dilute Gatorade Heat Exhaustion - heavy sweating, cool skin Cool victim, seek medical attention if vomiting Heat Stroke - medical emergency Hot, dry skin, rapid then weakening pulse Cool victim immediately

Good Safety Practices Inspect work area daily Be an observer - stay alert Housekeeping, Housekeeping, Housekeeping Use your best safety device - THINK If youre not sure - ASK someone!! Report Injuries/Incidents/Illnesses Report safety issues to the safety committee

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