BCH 300 LECTURE NOTES CHEMISTRY OF CARBOHYDRATES CARBOHYDRATES There are three major size classes of carbohydrates: monosaccharides, oligosaccharides, and
polysaccharides (the word saccharide is derived from the Greek sakcharon, meaning sugar). Monosaccharides Monosaccharides, or simple sugars, consist of a single polyhydroxy aldehyde or ketone unit.
The most abundant monosaccharide in nature is the six-carbon sugar D-glucose, sometimes referred to as dextrose. Monosaccharides of more than four carbons tend to have cyclic structures. Oligosaccharides
Oligosaccharides consist of short chains of monosaccharide units, or residues, joined by characteristic linkages called glycosidic bonds. Disaccharides The most abundant are the disaccharides, with two monosaccharide units.
Typical is sucrose (cane sugar), which consists of the six-carbon sugars D-glucose and D-fructose. All common monosaccharides and disaccharides have names ending with the suffix -ose. In cells, most oligosaccharides consisting of three or more units do not occur as free entities but are joined to nonsugar molecules (lipids or proteins) in
glycoconjugates. Polysaccharides The polysaccharides are sugar polymers containing more than 20 or so monosaccharide units, and some have hundreds or thousands of units. Some polysaccharides, such as cellulose, are linear
chains; others, such as glycogen, are branched. Both glycogen and cellulose consist of recurring units of D-glucose, but they differ in the type of glycosidic linkage and consequently have strikingly different properties and biological roles. Monosaccharides
The simplest of the carbohydrates, the monosaccharides, are either aldehydes or ketones with two or more hydroxyl groups; the six-carbon monosaccharides glucose and fructose have five hydroxyl groups. Many of the carbon atoms to which hydroxyl groups are attached are chiral centers, which
give rise to the many sugar stereoisomers found in nature. Monosaccharides are colorless, crystalline solids that are freely soluble in water but insoluble in nonpolar solvents. Most have a sweet taste. . The backbones of common monosaccharide molecules
are unbranched carbon chains in which all the carbon atoms are linked by single bonds. . In the open-chain form, one of the carbon atoms is double-bonded to an oxygen atom to form a carbonyl group; each of the other carbon atoms has a hydroxyl group.
If the carbonyl group is at an end of the carbon chain (that is, in an aldehyde group) the monosaccharide is an aldose; if the carbonyl group is at any other position (in a ketone group) the monosaccharide is a ketose. The simplest monosaccharides are the two three-carbon trioses: glyceraldehyde, an
aldotriose, and dihydroxyacetone, a ketotriose (Fig. 71a). Monosaccharides with four, five, six, and seven carbon atoms in their backbones are called, respectively, tetroses, pentoses, hexoses, and heptoses. There are aldoses and ketoses of each of these chain
lengths: aldotetroses and ketotetroses, aldopentoses and ketopentoses, and so on. The hexoses, which include the aldohexose D-glucose and the ketohexose D-fructose (Fig. 71b), are the most common monosaccharides in nature. The aldopentoses D-ribose and 2-deoxy-D-ribose (Fig. 7 1c) are components of nucleotides and nucleic acids.
Monosaccharides Have Asymmetric Centers All the monosaccharides except dihydroxyacetone contain one or more asymmetric (chiral) carbon atoms and thus occur in optically active isomeric forms . The simplest aldose, glyceraldehyde, contains
one chiral center (the middle carbon atom) and therefore has two different optical isomers, or enantiomers (Fig. 72). By convention, one of these two forms is designated the D isomer, the other the L isomer. As for other biomolecules with chiral centers,
the absolute configurations of sugars are known from x-ray crystallography. To represent three-dimensional sugar structures on paper, we often use Fischer projection formulas (Fig. 72). When the hydroxyl group on the reference
carbon is on the right in the projection formula, the sugar is the D isomer; when on the left, it is the L isomer. Of the 16 possible aldohexoses, eight are D forms and eight are L. Most of the hexoses of living organisms are D isomers.
Figure 73 shows the structures of the D stereoisomers of all the aldoses and ketoses having three to six carbon atoms. The carbons of a sugar are numbered beginning at the end of the chain nearest the carbonyl group. Each of the eight D-aldohexoses, which differ in the stereochemistry at C-2, C-3, or C-4, has its own name: Dglucose, D-galactose, D-mannose, and so forth (Fig. 73a).
The four- and five-carbon ketoses are designated by inserting ul into the name of a corresponding aldose; for example, D-ribulose is the ketopentose corresponding to the aldopentose D-ribose. Epimers Two sugars that differ only in the configuration
around one carbon atom are called epimers; D-glucose and D-mannose, which differ only in the stereochemistry at C-2, are epimers, as are D-glucose and D-galactose (which differ at C-4) (Fig. 74). Some sugars occur naturally in their L form;
examples are L-arabinose and the L isomers of some sugar derivatives that are common components of glycoconjugates. The Common Monosaccharides Have Cyclic Structures
For simplicity, we have thus far represented the structures of aldoses and ketoses as straight-chain molecules (Figs 73, 74). In fact, in aqueous solution, aldotetroses and all monosaccharides with five or more carbon atoms in the backbone occur predominantly as cyclic (ring) structures in which the carbonyl
group has formed a covalent bond with the oxygen of a hydroxyl group along the chain. FIGURE 73 Aldoses and ketoses. The series of (a) D-aldoses and (b) D-ketoses having from three to six carbon atoms, shown as projection formulas.
The carbon atoms in red are chiral centers. In all these D isomers, the chiral carbon most distant from the carbonyl carbon has the same configuration as the chiral carbon in Dglyceraldehyde. The formation of these ring structures is the result of a general reaction between alcohols and aldehydes or ketones
to form derivatives called hemiacetals or hemiketals (Fig. 75), which contain an additional asymmetric carbon atom and thus can exist in two stereoisomeric forms. For example, D-glucose exists in solution as an intramolecular hemiacetal in which the free hydroxyl group at C-5 has reacted with the aldehydic C-1, rendering the latter carbon asymmetric and producing two stereoisomers,
designated alpha and beta (Fig. 76). These six-membered ring compounds are called pyranoses because they resemble the sixmembered ring compound pyran (Fig. 77). The systematic names for the two ring forms of D-glucose are -Dglucopyranose and -D-glucopyranose. Aldohexoses also exist in cyclic forms having fivemembered rings, which, because they resemble the fivemembered ring compound
furan, are called furanoses. However, the six-membered aldopyranose ring is much more stable than the aldofuranose ring and predominates in aldohexose solutions. Only aldoses having five or more carbon atoms can form pyranose rings.
Isomeric forms of monosaccharides that differ only in their configuration about the hemiacetal or hemiketal carbon atom are called anomers. The hemiacetal (or carbonyl) carbon atom is called the anomeric carbon. The and anomers of D-glucose interconvert in aqueous solution by a process called mutarotation.
Thus, a solution of -D-glucose and a solution of -D-glucose eventually form identical equilibrium mixtures having identical optical properties. This mixture consists of about one-third -D-glucose, two-thirds -Dglucose, and very small amounts of the linear and five-membered ring (glucofuranose) forms. Ketohexoses also occur in and anomeric forms. In these compounds the hydroxyl group at C-5 (or C-6) reacts
with the keto group at C-2, forming a furanose (or pyranose) ring containing a hemiketal linkage (Fig. 75). D-Fructose readily forms the furanose ring (Fig. 77); the more common anomer of this sugar in combined forms or in derivatives is -D-fructofuranose. Haworth perspective formulas like those in Figure 77 are commonly used to show the stereochem-istry of ring forms of
monosaccharides. Disaccharides Contain a Glycosidic Bond Disaccharides (such as maltose, lactose, and sucrose) consist of two monosaccharides joined covalently by a glycosidic bond, which is formed when a hydroxyl group of one sugar reacts with the anomeric carbon of the other (Fig. 711).
This reaction represents the formation of an acetal from a hemiacetal (such as glucopyranose) and an alcohol (a hydroxyl group of the second sugar molecule) (Fig. 75). Glycosidic bonds are readily hydrolyzed by acid but resist cleavage by base. Thus disaccharides can be hydrolyzed to yield their free monosaccharide components by boiling with dilute acid.
Polysaccharides Most carbohydrates found in nature occur as polysaccharides, polymers of medium to high molecular weight. Polysaccharides, also called glycans, differ from each other in the identity of their recurring monosaccharide units, in the length of their chains, in the types of bonds linking the units, and in the degree of branching.
Homopolysaccharides contain only a single type of monomer; heteropolysaccharides contain two or more different kinds (Fig. 713). Some homopolysaccharides serve as storage forms of monosaccharides that are used as fuels; starch and glycogen are homopolysaccharides of this type. Other homopolysaccharides (cellulose and chitin, for example) serve as structural elements in plant cell walls and animal exoskeletons.
Heteropolysaccharides provide extracellular support for organisms of all kingdoms. For example, the rigid layer of the bacterial cell envelope (the peptidoglycan) is composed in part of a heteropolysaccharide built from two alternating monosaccharide units.
In animal tissues, the extracellular space is occupied by several types of heteropolysaccharides, which form a matrix that holds individual cells together and provides protection, shape, and support to cells, tissues, and organs. Polysaccharides (glycans) serve as stored fuel and as structural
components of cell walls and extracellular matrix. The homopolysaccharides starch and glycogen are stored fuels in plant, animal, and bacterial cells. They consist of D-glucose with linkages, and all three contain some branches. The homopolysaccharides cellulose, chitin, and dextran serve structural roles.
Cellulose, composed of (1-4)-linked D-glucose residues, lends strength and rigidity to plant cell walls. Chitin, a polymer of (1-4)-linked N-acetylglucosamine, strengthens the exoskeletons of arthropods. Dextran forms an adhesive coat around certain bacteria. Homopolysaccharides fold in three dimensions.
The chair form of the pyranose ring is essentially rigid, so the conformation of the polymers is determined by rotation about the bonds to the oxygen on the anomeric carbon. Starch and glycogen form helical structures with intrachain hydrogen bonding; cellulose and chitin form long, straight strands that interact with
neighboring strands. Bacterial and algal cell walls are strengthened by heteropolysaccharides peptidoglycan in bacteria, agar in red algae. The repeating disaccharide in peptidoglycan is GlcNAc(1n4)Mur2Ac; in agarose, it is DGal(1n4)3,6-anhydro-L-Gal.
Glycosaminoglycans are extracellular heteropolysaccharides in which one of the two monosaccharide units is a uronic acid
SIMS Version. Before you can start the Spring Census Census you will need to have upgraded to the SIMS Autumn release Version 7.184. If you are not sure if SIMS has been upgraded - in SIMS Select Help\About SIMS.Net
The repealing of gay rights, including the fighting against gay marriage is the most recent obstacle. The LGBT Movement The history of the movement from Stonewall through Gay Marriage, Gender Identity and Transgender Issues To start; a few questions… The...
The IEEE Standards Association reaffirms its commitment to an environment free of discrimination and harassment as stated in the IEEE Code of Conduct, IEEE Code of Ethics, and IEEE Nondiscrimination Policy. IEEE BoD meetings June 2018
Evil is not real. All reality is good. Evil is a negation of good. Evil is a negation of reality. Therefore, evil is not real. Plotinus (204-270) p. 27. A matter of psychologically persuading ourselves that evil is not truly...
Arial MS Pゴシック Geneva Times Comic Sans MS Calibri Times New Roman Albertus Medium Monotype Sorts Microsoft Office 98 Blank Presentation Default Design Microsoft Graph Chart Microsoft Excel Worksheet Climate Change The Policy Dimensions Slide 2 Slide 3 Scientific Conclusions...
Basic Bones - Pelvis. SACRUM. Triangular bone at the end of the spine. COXAL. Hip Bones. Male or Female? Female- Skeleton is much smoother. Male-Skeleton is thicker, rougher, bumpier. ... Narrow pelvis, Sloping forehead. Case #3: Smooth skull, Sacrum curves...
Ready to download the document? Go ahead and hit continue!