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Course Aims? Invisible computing Course contents? Muhammad Amir Yousaf 2 History HUMANS CALCULATIONS AND COMPUTATIONS Humans needed to count, calculate and compute since the beginning. They needed to count times, distances,

money (sheep, cattle )etc. With development of human society, they had to do advanced calculations to make tide charts, navigational tables and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 3 History HUMANS CALCULATIONS AND COMPUTATIONS Later on they started computing to precisely hit their enemies with trebuchets, cannons and bomber

jets. With the growing need, dedicated people were hired to make repetitive or/and complex calculations. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 4 History HUMAN COMPUTERS The term "computer was used in the mid 17th century. The approach was used for astronomical and other complex calculations.

Human computers have played integral roles in the World War II Human computers performing repetitive computing to compute navigational tables, tide charts, and planetary positions for astronomical almanacs. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 5 History EARLY COMPUTATION DEVICES Abacus: The abacus was an early aid for mathematical computations.

An Abacus expert can do addition and subtraction at same speed as with calculator. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 6 History EARLY COMPUTATION DEVICES The period 2700-2300 BC saw the first appearance in Sumerian civilisation Greek historian mentioned the use of Abacus in ancient Egypt

Achaemenid Persian Empire, around 600 BC Muhammad Amir Yousaf 7 History EARLY COMPUTATION DEVICES John Napier invented Logarithms in 1617 that allows multiplication to be performed via additions In 1632 a slide rule was build using the Napiers

Log table. It was still in use until 1960 by NASA engineers of Apollo program. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 8 History MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Blaise Pascal (19) invented Pascaline in 1642 for his tax collector father. Still the mechanical odometers use the Pascalines mechanism to increment the next wheel after each revolution of prior Step Reckoner by Wilhelm Leibniz : It was the first wheel.

calculator that could perform all four arithmetic operations: addition, subtraction, multiplication and division. Leibniz was the first to advocate use of the binary number system Muhammad Amir Yousaf 9 History PUNCH CARD COMPUTERS 1801, Joseph Marie Jacquard introduced wooden punch cards to feed pattern to power looms that could weave fabric and print design on it.

The presence or absence of holes in predefined positions would physically allows a thread to pass or stops that thread. This punched card idea was later used in many mechanical computers for programming . Muhammad Amir Yousaf 10 History PUNCH CARD COMPUTERS Jacquard's Loom showing the threads and the punched cards

Muhammad Amir Yousaf 11 History Muhammad Amir Yousaf 12 History MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Middle decades of 19th century..times of unprecedented engineering ambitions. Steam engines had started powering up. 'I wish to God these calculations had been

executed by steam' Charles Babbage embarked on an ambitious venture to design and build mechanical calculating engines. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 13 History MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Difference Engine was the first idea that would compute logarithm tables but never completed . Babbage came with another idea

Analytic Machine power by 6 steam engines. It was programmable with punch cards used to feed instructions and also to store data. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 14 History MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Herman Hollerith invented a counting machine called Hollerith desk for 1890 US census. The machine was build using the Jacquards punched cards and

Pascal's gear wheel technologies. Hollerith build a company, the Tabulating Machine Company which eventually became the International Business Machines (IBM) Muhammad Amir Yousaf 15 History ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPUTERS WW-II, Precise calculation for shell trajectory was required U.S. had battleships that could lob shells weighing as much as a

small car over distances up to 25 miles. Physicists could write the equations that described how atmospheric drag, wind, gravity, muzzle velocity, etc. would determine the trajectory of the shell. But solving such equations was extremely laborious. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 16 History ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Mark I was first programmable digital computer made by a partnership b/w Harvard and IBM in 1944 to perform military job.

It was not purely electronic but was constructed out of relays, rotating shafts and clutches. The machine weighed 5 tons, incorporated 500 miles of wire, was 8 feet tall and 51 feet long, and had a 50 ft rotating shaft running its length, turned by a 5 horsepower electric motor. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 17 History ELECTRO-MECHANICAL COMPUTERS Muhammad Amir Yousaf 18

History FIRST COMPUTER BUG FOUND Grace Hopper found the first computer "bug": a dead moth that had gotten into the Mark I and whose wings were blocking the reading of the holes in the paper tape. The word "bug" had been used to describe a defect since at least 1889 but Hopper is credited with coining the word "debugging" to describe the work to eliminate program faults. In 1953 Grace Hopper invented the first high-level language, "Flowmatic which eventually became COBOL She also constructed the world's first compiler. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 19

History The Mark I operated on numbers that were 23 digits wide. Add or subtract two of these numbers in threetenths of a second. Multiply them in four seconds. Divide them in ten seconds. Store 72 numbers. Six electronic digital computers would be sufficient to satisfy the computing needs of the entire United States. Howard Aiken Muhammad Amir Yousaf 20 History

ELECTRONIC COMPUTERS Then the microelectronic revolution allowed the things to change in the way we have today. Designed and hand-built by Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak, the Apple I was Apple's first product, and went on sale in July 1976. Apple I came as a home computer in 1976. It was the first commercially successful home computer to

feature both a mouse-based input system, as well as an easy-to-use graphical user interface. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 21 History COMPUTER IN ELECTRONIC AGE History of electronic computer development is divided into 5 generations.

1st Generation: Vacuum Tube Computers 2nd Generation: Transistor Computers 3rd Generation: Integrated IC 4th Generation: VLSI (processors) Major changes occur in the areas: Size, Cost, Efficiency, Reliability Muhammad Amir Yousaf 22 History 1ST GENERATION: VACUUM TUBES

1906 Lee de Forest invents the vacuum tube that could amplify and switch voltage level. 1945, ENIAC, Electronic Numerical Integrator and Calculator was the first vacuum tube computer designed by Eckert and Mauchly. ENIAC filled a 20 by 40 foot room, weighed 30 tons, and used more than 18,000 vacuum tubes. Programmable with punched cards and tape Much faster than Mark I as there was no mechanical moving part. Mark I takes 6 seconds for multiplications whereas it takes only 2.8 thousandth of a second. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 23

History 1ST GENERATION: VACUUM TUBES To reprogram the ENIAC you had to rearrange the patch cords that you can observe on the left in the prior photo, and the settings of 3000 switches that you can observe on the right Muhammad Amir Yousaf 174,000 watts of heat produced by 19000 vacuum tubes. 24

History 1ST GENERATION: VACUUM TUBES 1940S-1956 1951, The two guys of ENIAC teamed up with John Von Neumann to eliminate the obnoxious fact that reprogramming the computer required a physical modification of all the patch cords and switches. It took days to change ENIAC's program. Neumann was first to give stored program computer architecture that is still in use in most modern computers with some modifications. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 25

History 1ST GENERATION: VACUUM TUBES 1940S-1956 Vacuum Tube technology was: Much faster than mechanical computers Expensive Bulky Power Hungry Un-reliable Punched cards, paper tape, magnetic drum memories. Muhammad Amir Yousaf

26 History 2ND GENERATION: TRANSISTORS 1956-1963 1947, Transistors invented in Bell Labs. Transistors replaced vacuum tubes in 2nd generation computers. Transistors allowed 2nd generation computers to be: Smaller in size.

Faster in speed. Reliable Energy efficient. Computers moved to assembly language and high level languages e.g. FORTRAN and COBOL were used for instructions. Magnetic core technology was used for memory. Instructions were stored in memory. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 27 History

3RD GENERATION: INTEGRATED CIRCUITS 1964- 1971 Integrated circuit technology was developed that allowed integration of several transistors on a silicon chip. It drastically increased the speed and efficiency of 3rd generation computers while reducing the size. The change was revolutionary. The use of operating system allowed several applications running on same time. The reduction in size and cost due to IC technology had made it accessible to mass users. Altair 1975 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 28

History 4TH GENERATION: VLSI 1971 TO PRESENT Very Large Scale Integration (VLSI), thousands of ICs on same chip made it possible to develop entire processor on single chip. Intel 4004 processor chip, 1971 CPU, memory to I/O control on same chip. 4-bits IBM introduced home computer, 1981 Apple introduced the Macintosh, 1984 Personal computers Desktops, laptops, Netbooks, Pads and tablets Muhammad Amir Yousaf

29 History COMPUTERS PAST PRESENT FUTURE Up to 1970s Computers up to 1970s were very large objects, called mainframes. Difficult to maintain. Expensive Require specialized cooling infrastructure. Only in Research labs Multi to one relations Muhammad Amir Yousaf

30 History COMPUTERS PAST PRESENT FUTURE After 1971 Intels 4004 (1971), mainframe built on to a chip. Computing became cheaper, robust, portable. Personal computers, Every one started having ones own. Many to one relation changes to One to One Muhammad Amir Yousaf 31

History COMPUTERS PAST PRESENT FUTURE Where it would lead to in future Computing would be distributed in physical space. Invisible but everywhere around us, Mark Weiser (1990) In woodworks around us even in the clothing. Embedded, wireless, invisible Interfaces.? Gestural, voice Muhammad Amir Yousaf 32 Future

Invisible but everywhere around us Computing away from mainframe and desktop computers. In the smaller computing engines ubiquitously spread in physical space. Microcontrollers.Smaller computing engines Muhammad Amir Yousaf 33 Future Invisible but everywhere around us New areas computers getting in

Paper 4, Touch sensitive printed surface with printed speakers Muhammad Amir Yousaf 34 Motivation MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM DESIGN? Muhammad Amir Yousaf 35

Motivation MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM DESIGN? To be a system designer and analyst: Knowledge of programming languages for efficient software design. General knowledge of modern technologies. Sensing Computing Communicating Muhammad Amir Yousaf 36 MICROPROCESSOR SYSTEM DESIGN ET032G

Labs & Lectures: Muhammad Amir Yousaf S- Building 241-F 060148748 Email: [email protected] Muhammad Amir Yousaf 37 COURSE AIM Aims: The course aims to provide a basic understanding of how microcomputers are constructed and how they are used.

A solid Foundation: In-depth knowledge of computer architecture. For design, debug and testing. Muhammad Amir Yousaf 38 COURSE AIM Student will learn to design an electronic system into a modern microprocessor and get the skills to program a modern microprocessor. Microcomputer interaction with external devices General knowledge of modern technologies. Muhammad Amir Yousaf

39 LEARNING OBJECTIVES After successful completion of the course students should learn Basic microcomputer architecture: how a micro-computer is built and functioning . how to design a simple electronic systems on a microcomputer Programming in C how to handle a development environment for a microcomputer how to write simpler program and functions in a microcomputer using C. be able to write and include inline assembler of short code fragments I/O handling, synchronization to read information from the outside world, process it and then influence its surrounding. to handle both analog and digital signals to / from micro-computer. use interrupt and polling to synchronize program execution to the outside world. link microcomputer with other devices through standard interface such as SPI, I2C, UART and USB.

Muhammad Amir Yousaf 40 COURSE CONTENTS The course is divided into three parts with the following content Basic microcomputer architecture Von Neumann architectures Assembly programming Overview of state-of-the-art architectures Programming in C Structured Programming in C Inline assembler I/O management Read/write data from/to outside world A/D - D/A converters Memory architectures Synchronization via interrupt and polling

Interface to the SPI (e.g. memory cards), I2C, UART, USB communication Muhammad Amir Yousaf 41 LECTURE PLAN Introduction to Course: Computer History Course Plan, Aims and Goals Course Contents. Lecture 1: Von Neumann Architecture

Von Neumann Architecture Harvard Architecture Addressing Modes Data Representation. Lecture2: Microprocessor Programming Problem definition Program design goals Program development Embedded C Muhammad Amir Yousaf

42 LECTURE PLAN Lecture 3: Microprocessor Programming II Embedded C Pointers, Array, Structures Memory Management Lecture4: Architecture of X-mega micro-controller Lecture5: IO Handling Communication with external world Communication models Overview of serial and parallel protocols Muhammad Amir Yousaf

43 LECTURE PLAN Lecture6: IO Handling II SPI I2C USART Lecture 7: Inline Assembly Why Assembly? Basic Instructions. Mixing Assembly and C Lecture8: Memory Registers Memory Type Memory configurations

Muhammad Amir Yousaf 44 LABS AND EXERCISES Microcontroller Educational Platform:

Atmel ATxmega128B1 microcontroller 4x40 LCD module with backlight Transfer data over the USB full/low speed device interface Read a light sensor with the ADC Read a temperature sensor with the ADC Measure external voltage input with ADC Measure potentiometer voltage with ADC Read status of the 4 Atmel QTouch buttons from AT42QT1040 QTouch device 4 LEDs to show status information Read/write data to the 64Mbit Atmel DataFlash Program the kit via USB bootloader or an Atmel programmer Expand the board with Xplained top modules Muhammad Amir Yousaf 45

LABS AND EXERCISES Programming Environment: AVR Studio 6 Labs Lab1: Literature reading i.e. Datasheets and getting started tutorials Getting started with AVR Studio 6 AVR simulator to visualize the data flow within registers to get deeper idea of architecture Digital IOs, LEDs and Switches Lab2: IO Handling Muhammad Amir Yousaf 46

LABS AND EXERCISES Programming Environment: AVR Studio 6 Labs Lab3: Inline assembly Interrupts More robust applications Muhammad Amir Yousaf 47 EXAMINATION AND GRADING SYSTEM Examination form 3.0 credits, T106: Exam Grades: A, B, C, D, E, Fx and F. A-E are

passed and Fx and F are failed. 3.0 credits, L106: Laboratory Grades: Pass (P) or Fail (F) 1.5 credits, I106: Assignment, Project Grades: Pass (P) or Fail (F) A written exam will be held 15th Jan 2014 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 48 Muhammad Amir Yousaf 49

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