Bio-Molecules - Twinsburg

Bio-Molecules - Twinsburg

Organic Molecules: Chemical compounds containing Carbon What are we made of? Carbon (C) Hydrogen (H) Oxygen (O)

Nitrogen (N) Phosphorous (P) Atoms Molecules Macromolecules Food

Metabolism Cells Metabolism Building Blocks Vocabulary Check Explain the

difference between monomers and polymers based on the picture to the right!

Organic Molecules Carbohydrates (sugars) Proteins Lipids(fats) Nucleic Acids (DNA & RNA)

Carbohydrates (Sugars) 2:1 ratio between Hydrogen and Oxygen. (CH 2O) Monomer = Monosaccharides Monosaccharides (simple sugars) C6H12O6 glucose, fructose, and galactose Disaccharides (double sugars) sucrose and

lactose Polysaccharides (complex sugars) starch, cellulose, and glycogen Carbohydrate Functions Quick energy foods (1 gram contains 4 calories of energy): glucose, sucrose,

and fructose. Central role as energy source. Storage (starch in plants, glycogen in animals) Structure (cellulose and chitin) Food Sources for Carbohydrates

Protein Monomer = amino acids. Each amino acid contains

an NH2 or amino group and a CO2H or carboxyl group Examples Actin/ Myosin

Hemoglobin Antibodies Enzymes: amylase, protease Protein Functions Energy source (1 gram = 4 cal of energy). Movement: Makes up muscle tissue (actin and

myosin). Transport: Carries oxygen in organisms (hemoglobin). Immunity: Helps fight off foreign invaders (antibodies). Enzymes: Speed up chemical reactions (amylase and trypsin).

Food Sources of Protein Lipids Monomer= Fatty Acid Examples: Fats, Steroids, Cholesterol, and Wax-allows plants to store water.

They are found surrounding internal organs, in each cell membrane, and clogging arteries and veins. Main Types of Fats Saturated: No double bonds between the carbons

Solid at room temperature Found mostly in animals. Unsaturated: Double bonds between some of the carbons Liquid at room temperature

Found mostly in plants Lipid Functions High Energy food. 1 gram contains 9 cal of energy. Protects vital organs Insulates the body

Stores food for later use Food Sources for Fats Energy Review Nucleic Acids

Monomer = nucleotides Examples are: DNA (Deoxyribonucleic

acid) and RNA (Ribonucleic acid) genetic information storage. Monomers Build Polymers

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