Biochemistry - Berry College

Biochemistry - Berry College

Chapter 1 Principles of Biochemistry 1.1 What Is Biochemistry? Biochemistry aims to explain biological processes at the molecular and cellular levels. Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Biochemistry: An Applied Science

Biochemistry uses advanced experimental methods to develop in vitro conditions for exploiting cellular processes and enzymatic reactions. Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company 1.2 The Chemical Basis of Life: A Hierarchical Perspective The foundation of this hierarchy includes

chemical elements and functional groups. Chemical elements: Element Symbol Percent dry weight (%) Carbon Nitrogen

Oxygen Hydrogen Calcium Phosphorus Potassium Sulfur Chlorine Sodium Magnesium Manganese Iron Cobalt Copper Zinc

Selenium Molybdenum Iodine Fluorine Chromium Tin Upper C Upper N Upper O Upper H Upper C-a Upper P Upper K

Upper S Upper C-l Upper N-a Upper M-g Upper M-n Upper F-e Upper C-o Upper C-u Upper Z-n Upper S-e Upper M-o Upper I Upper F Upper C-r

Upper S-n 62 11 9 6 5 3 1 1 Less than 1 Less than 1 Less than 1 Less than 0.1

Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Less than 0.1 Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Organizational Hierarchy of

Biochemistry Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Chemical Bonding Observed in Biochemistry The most common carbon bonds are C-C, C=C, C-H, C=O, C-N, C-S, and C-O. Atom Number of unpaired

electrons The hydrogen symbol with a single red dot on the right side of the atom. 1 The oxygen symbol with two paired electrons at the top, two paired electrons on the left, one unpaired electron on the left and one unpaired electron on the bottom. 2

The nitrogen symbol with two paired electrons at the left, one unpaired electrons on the top, one unpaired electron on the left and one unpaired electron on the bottom. 3 The carbon symbol with one unpaired electron on the top, one unpaired electron on the left, one unpaired electron on the bottom and one unpaired electron on the right.

4 Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Molecular Geometry Revisited A carbon atom can bind up to four single bonds to form a tetrahedron The rotation around a single bond is very easy

due to its sigma bond, while a carbon-carbon double bond includes a pi bond and rotation is not possible without breaking this pi bond. Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Trace Elements In addition to the elements observed in Table 1.1, trace elements are used as cofactors in proteins and are required for life.

These elements are required in smaller (trace) amounts. These elements include: Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Essential Ions Play a key role in cell signaling and

neurophysiology Include: Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Functional Groups Play an important role in structure and function of biomolecules

Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Biomolecules, Part 1 Four major types: Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Biomolecules, Part 2 Primary cellular function Amino acid

Protein function Neurotransmission Nitrogen metabolism Energy conversion Nucleotides Nucleic acid function Energy conversion

Signal transduction Enzyme catalysis Simple sugar Energy conversion Cell wall structure Cell recognition Nucleotide structure

Fatty acid Cell membranes Energy conversion Cell signaling Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Amino Acids Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company

Nucleotides Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Simple Sugars Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Fatty Acids Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Saturated vs. Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids

Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Macromolecules Higher end structural form of biomolecules Include: Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company

Polymers in Macromolecules: Nucleic Acids Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Polymers in Macromolecules: Proteins Covalently linked amino acids Also known as polypeptides

R = different amino acid side chains Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Polymers in Macromolecules: Polysaccharides Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Various Examples of Polysaccharides

Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Metabolic Pathways Enable cells to coordinate and control complex biochemical processes in response to available energy Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Metabolic Pathway Terminology

Metabolites Metabolic flux Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Metabolic Pathway Example: The Urea Cycle Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Metabolic Pathway Formats

Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Cellular Structures Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Key Cellular Structure Functions, Part 1 Genome

Nucleolus Ribosomes Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company Key Cellular Structure Functions, Part 2 Mitochondria

Peroxisomes and lysosomes Endoplasmic reticulum Golgi apparatus Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company

Cell Specialization A higher level of organizational complexity Allows multicellular organisms to exploit their environment through signal transduction Copyright 2017 W. W. Norton & Company

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