Biodiversity in Minnesota

Biodiversity in Minnesota

Biodiversity in Minnesota Ring-Necked Pheasant Bison Bowfin Spotted Salamander Shag Bark Hickory Wild Licorice By Bryce Woitas Male- adults are medium sized chicken like birds Long pointed tails

Wings long Face is red and bare Head has iridescent green on it Known for a white ring around neck Chest is maroon. Spurs halfway up leg Body is brown, with some orange Female Mottled brown Small black spots on her back Long, pointed tail with black stripes or

barring Reproduces lays eggs, nests on the ground Foodomnivore, scratches on ground digs with bill for seeds, grains, grasses, leaves, roots, wild fruit, nuts and insects Predatorscoyotes, foxes, hawks, owls, crows, stripped skunk, racoons Habitatgrassland, agland, ditches, hedges,

marshes, and woodland borders Ring-Necked Pheasant cont. Population--increased 68 percent from 2011 expected to harvest about 290,000 roosters this fall. Diseases--Botulism, Coccidiosis owl typhoid, erysipelas, fowl cholera, avian tuberculosis, navel ill, crooked toe(young birds), Newcastle disease, eye infections

and worms. Ring-Necked Pheasant cont. Fun Factsharem-defense polygyny one male watches over a small group of females 34 species or races of pheasants Known to stay on roost several days during bad weather without eating Hunted or Harvested Both- raised by game farms for sale for

hunting or eating Hunted by a person using a trained dog Bison Description Male length from 3.6 m to 3.8 m height at the shoulder ranging from 1.67 m to 1.86 m. Shoulder hump and huge head Fur color is brown, which can vary in shades

Easier to see in the males is the longer hair in the front of the body. Fur color is shades of brown Black horns which curve up and in with sharp tips Hooves are black and round and splitT Bison Female Description length 2.13 m to 3.18 m Tall at the shoulders 1.52 m to 1.57 m Huge head and shoulder hump Same type of coat, hooves and horns as male Female is smaller than the male

Bison Habitat grasslands, open savannas of North America. Found in some boreal habitats to semi-desert habitats. Mostly raised in MN. In the past they free ranged across southern MN. Diseases-- Pink Eye, Malignant Catarrhal Fever r Johnes Disease Capture Myopathy Calf Scours, Brucellosis, Bison Bovine, Viral Diarrhea, Bacillary Hemoglobinuria

Anaplasmosis Bison Foodgraze year around, grass eaters may eat sagebrush is grass is gone, need water every day Population only evidence of large herds are now found in MN from bones, rocks rubbed smooth and wallows from thousands of buffalo passing thru, currently herd s are captive in parks or privately owned Reproductionpolygynous, dominant bulls tend

group of females, Gestation is 285 days, live birth, baby drinks milk from mother Hunted or Harvestedpresently raised for meat or breeding programs Bison Fun Facts Bison can be found at Blue Mounds State Park and have a herd around 100 animals Once were a major source of meat and hides for the United States

Are considered a keystone factor in Prairie communities Predatorswolves, mountain lions and humans Bowfin Description Male- and Female - medium-sized, greenish, tubular, olive-green fish

scale less head ,two barbels on its face dorsal fin stretches most of the length of its back Mn record size is 10 lbs 15 oz., can grow to 20, and 3 feet long Males have a black spot circled in green at base of their tail. Bowfin Reproductionmale builds a nest of vegitation pieces

Female lays eggs, male expresses milt, male guards eggs, babies hatch then cling to bottom with their noses, male stays with babies for a few weeks Food--fish, crayfish, insects, amphibians, and crustaceans Predatorsother predatory fish, and bowfish will eat other bowfish babies

Habitat-- Bowfin Habitat found in MN lakes and streams Like slow-moving , clear water can live in swampy, weedy areas PopulationAbundant in MN Diseases Bowfin Fun Facts A farmer once found a live bowfin in moist soil when he

ploughed a field that had been flooded a few weeks before. In recent years, fish farmers have shown interest in making bowfin eggs into caviar. http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish/bowfin.html Has the ability to breath air. Considered an excellent fighter, pulls hard when trying to reel them in. Bowfin Hunted or Harvestednot considered a

good food fish, fished for the sport, mostly caught in spring and early summer Season/Regulations--Bowfishing May 1 to the last Sunday in February Spotted Salamander Descriptions Male and Female They can be 6 to 7 3/4 inches long Males have longer thicker tails, tail fins noticeable Barely noticeable on the females Males are brightly colored during breeding season Color is black, bluish black, or gray ground color

Yellow or orange spots on back and from head to tail Belly and sides are dark grey Spotted Salamander Reproduction Adults migrate to ponds in spring Males nudge and rub females male drops a spermatophoren, females walk over them and pick them up with their cloacal lips Female can lay up to 200 eggs in a clump, can be on top or under water

Clump is covered with a jelly-like coating to protect the eggs from predators Eggs hatch in a few weeks They hatch as larvae , grow 2 to 4 months Spotted Salamander Foodthey eat: earthworms insects anything they can catch and swallow Predatorsfoxes, fish, crows, snakes and bears

Spotted Salamander Habitat woodlands need ponds for breeding Spends time in other animal s burrows, comes out during heavy rains PopulationApril 26, 2001 seven Spotted Salamander egg masses found in Nemadji State Forest Diseases--gas bubble disease ,metabolic

bone disease Spotted Salamander Fun Facts the oils from human hands are toxic to salamanders Each salamander has a unique spot pattern Salamander means Fire Lover Hunted or harvested- seasons & regulationsoriginally giant salamanders were hunted Present day salamanders may be purchased in a pet store.

Shag Bark Hickory DescriptionAlso known as Carya ovata, has loose-plated bark Shagbark Hickory Bark, leaves, fruit and seeds has fruit or nuts that are 1 to 3 together individual fruits are 3 to 6 cm in size ripens September thru October disperses its seeds thru December Shagbark Hickory Seed disbursementmonoecious and

flowers in the spring Diseasesvulnerable to fire Butt rot, Canker rot, trunk rot, anthracnose, mildew, bunch disease, Crown gall, up to180 species of insects and mites can infest affected by at least 133 known fungi Shagbark Hickory Economics- food for wildlife, coppice fuel wood,

charcoal-producing wood, hickory lumber used in furniture, flooring, and tool handles Fun Facts hickory is used for ladder rungs, dowels Mammals such as : chipmunks, black bears, foxes, rabbits, and white-footed mice eat hickory nuts. Birds such as : mallards, wood ducks, bobwhites and wild turkeys eat hickory nuts Wild Licorice Description Up to 3 feet tall

Pale yellow flowers in thick clusters Leaves are compound with 11 to 19 leaflets Blooms June thru August Fruit is of an inch long and is covered in hooked prickles Turns brown by the end of summer Needs sun, moist fields, prairies Wild Licorice Pale yellow flowers in thick clusters Leaves are compound with 11 to 19 leaflets Blooms June thru August

Wild Licorice Seed disbursement Fruit is of an inch long and is covered in hooked prickles Turns brown by the end of summer Wild Licorice Uses- Used for medicinal purposes such as, cough, tuberculosis, cough, some problems of tuberculosis, chest complaints like bronchitis, constipation, relieve inflammation in mucus membranes

Fun Facts American Indians grew it for its roots which tasted like sweet licorice. Many Chinese herbal formulas contain Wild licorice Bibliography

Ring-Necked Pheasant http://www.allaboutbirds.org/guide/Ring-necked_Pheasant/id http://news.dnr.state.mn.us/2012/09/04/minnesotas-pheasant-index-up-68-percent-from-2011/ http://www.minnesotapf.org/page/1000/MN-Predators.jsp http://www.avianweb.com/pheasantdiseases.html Bison http://animaldiversity.ummz.umich.edu/accounts/Bison_bison/ http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=mn+bison&view=detail&id=A1397859AFC556EC7E62 EABEB74AF26B3157A810 http://www.bisoncentre.com/index.php?option=com_content&view=category&id=42&Itemid= 43 Bowfin http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fish/bowfin.html

http://www.bing.com/images/search?q=female+image+of+bowfin+fish&view=detail&id=6B61 E2DFB2DAC60663C94A3DA4C4FE8999236935&qpvt=female+image+of+bowfin+fish http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/fishing/seasons.html# Spotted Salamander http://www.herpnet.net/Minnesota-Herpetology/salamanders/SpottedSalamander.html http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/salamanders/spotted.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/spotted-salamander-facts.html http://www.shadescreek.org/Salamander%20Facts.html Bibliography Spotted Salamander http://www.herpnet.net/Minnesota-Herpetology/salamanders/Spotted Salamander.html

http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/reptiles_amphibians/salamanders/spotte d.html http://www.buzzle.com/articles/spotted-salamander-facts.html http://www.shadescreek.org/Salamander%20Facts.html Shagbark Hickory http://www.na.fs.fed.us/pubs/silvics_manual/volume_2/carya/ovata.htm http://www.google.com/search? num=10&hl=en&site=imghp&tbm=isch&source=hp&biw=952&bih=503&q=shagbark +hickory&oq=shagbar&gs_l=img.3.0.0l5j0i24l5.1609.3922.0.5516.7.7.0.0.0.0.312.103 0.0j3j1j1.5.0...0.0...1ac.1.h3SLEVriaLM Bibliography Wild Licorice

http://www.google.com/search? hl=en&safe=active&biw=952&bih=503&site=imghp&tbm=isc h&sa=1&q=Minnesota+Wild+Licorice&oq=Minnesota+Wild+Li corice&gs_l=img.3...9532.14422.0.16969.13.5.0.0.0.0.407.125 1.0j1j3j0j1.5.0...0.0...1c.1.f2H4kwE2Cyc http://www.dnr.state.mn.us/wildflowers/wildlicorice.html http://www.minnesotawildflowers.info/flower/wild-licorice http://www.holoweb.com/cannon/wildd.htm http://www.cloverleaffarmherbs.com/licorice/ #sthash.Z4qHRVWP.dpbs

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