Synthesis and Hydrolysis Dehydration synthesis: smaller molecules combine and produce a large molecule and water Hydrolysis: larger molecules are broken down into smaller molecules with the addition of water Unit Molecules(monomers) and Polymers
Enzymes required Synthesis and Hydrolysis Unit Molecules Polymer H2O Dehydration Synthesis
Hydrolysis H2O CARBOHYDRATES Carbohydrate s
AKA Sugars Empirical Formula CH2O Typically polymers of sugar units
Carbohydrates... Glucose Very important biological molecule it is a product of photosynthesis. Plants store it as starch, use it as food and make it into cellulose to build cell parts. Heterotrophs get carbohydrates from food. Most importantly glucose is used
at the cellular level in respiration. Animals store extra glucose as glycogen. Cellulose cannot be digested by humans but is an important source of fibre! Carbohydrates In the dehydration
synthesis of carbohydrates an ESTHER bond is formed between simple sugars. Esther Bond
LIPIDS Lipids AKA fats Extremely important energy molecules Fatty Acids nonpolar chains of carbon and hydrogen with a carboxylic acid ending
Saturated Fats no double bonds, typically produced by animal tissues, solid at room temperature (butter) Unsaturated Fats double bonds, typically produced by plant tissues, usually less solid at room temperature (olive oil) Lipids
Neutral Fats Deyhydration synthesis of 1 or more fatty acids and glycerol Monoglyceride (1 fatty acid + glycerol) Diglyceride, Triglyceride Lipids Humans tend to store lipids in
ADIPOSE (fat) cells. Lipids include fatty acids, neutral fats, steroid hormones, cholesterol and wax among other things. Soaps are made from fatty acids and inorganic ions like sodium. Phospholipids important part of cell membranes.
Lipids PROTEINS Proteins Polymers of amino acids Twenty different amino acids Amino acid structure:
Covalently bonded atoms Carboxyl group at one end Amino group at the other end Each amino acid differs in the R group bonded to the middle carbon Proteins Carboxyl group
Amino group Unique to Amino Acid Amino Acid Structure
Proteins Two amino acids are bonded together via dehydration synthesis and the result is a dipeptide (3 amino acids results in a tripeptide) The strong bond between the amino acids is called a peptide bond Levels of protein structure: Primary
Secondary Tertiary Quaternary Proteins Proteins There is a huge variety of proteins
from very small and simple to very large and complex. Functional Proteins: Eg. enzymes, antibodies and transport proteins . Structural Proteins: Eg. keratin and collagen. NUCLEIC ACIDS
Nucleic Acids Major part of chromosomes which form an individual genetic blueprint that makes every organism unique. DNA, RNA Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA
Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) and Ribonucleic Acid (RNA) Polymers of nucleotides Nucleotides Deoxyribose or Ribose Phosphate Group Nitrogen Base (Adenine, Thymine or Uracil, Guanine, Cyotsine)
Nucleic Acids - DNA Click icon to add picture Simple nucleotide of DNA. Nucleic Acids DNA and RNA
DNA is double helix while RNA is single stranded Nitrogen bases bind together in a specific pattern (A-T and G-C) to hold nucleotides together in DNA strands (hydrogen bonds) Nucleic Acids
DNA Click icon to add picture DNA strand of nucleotides showing hydrogen bonding between nitrogen bases. Nucleic Acids - ATP Cells store chemical energy as ATP.
They both make and use ATP to power cellular activities. Nucleic Acids - ATP ATP is a modified nucleic acid made of an RNA nucleotide Adenosine Triphosphate
Adenine base Ribose 3 Phosphate groups Phosphate-phosphate bonds are very high energy Nucleic Acids
ATP picture Click icon to- add P + Energy ATP ADP
P + Energy Adenosine Triphosphate ATP Cycle that allows cells to store and release chemical energy. All of these organic molecules are made up of smaller units. Dehydration synthesis joins these molecules together to form polymers and Hydrolysis breaks them apart.
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