BIOLOGY 12 Biological Molecules CHEAT SHEET PREFIX/SUFFIX -ology = the study of Cyto-/cyte = cell Hydro-/hydrate = water Lyso- = split Lysis = break apart Pod/ped = foot Thermo = temperature Phobia/-phobic = fear/hating -phylic / -philia = loving
Poly = many Iso = same Soma - / -some = body Chrome=colour ATOMIC BONDING 1) 2) 3) Ionic Bonding Covalent Bonding
Polar Bonds/ Hydrogen Bonds/ H-Bonds IONIC BONDING A metal + non-metal Metal will give all e- in its outer shell to a non-metal so that both have a full shell COVALENT BONDING 2 non-metals will share electrons Both atoms share the electrons equally (nonpolar, hydrophobic)
I. II. Because the e- are shared equally by both atoms, the molecule is electrically neutral The shared electrons are attracted equally to both nuclei because they have the same charge
The electrons are not shared equally (polar, hydrophilic) POLAR BONDS/ HYDROGEN BONDS Bond between 2 polar molecules The positive end of one is attracted to the negative end of the other Ie: the bond that hold the water molecules
together OTHER NOTES Polar mixes with Polar Ie: Water + Sugar Non-Polar mixes w/ Non-Polar
Gasoline + oil Polar and Non-Polar do NOT mix Water and Oil ACID, BASES AND BUFFER
Polarity can cause some molecules to split apart or DISSOCIATE when mixed with water Ie: H2O -> H+ + OH- Note: [ ] Concentration Ie: [salt] = salt concentration
ACID, BASES AND BUFFER Acids- any compound that dissociates in water to release H+ ions Bases any compounds that dissociates in H2O to release OH- ions [OH]>[H+]
When [H-] and [OH-] are equal to each other, what is the solution called? BUFFER Compounds that pick up excess H+ or OH- to maintain a constant pH of a solution Essential to living things In humans, buffers help us maintain homeostasis
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Pseudo-nMOS In the old days, nMOS processes had no pMOS Instead, use pull-up transistor that is always ON In CMOS, use a pMOS that is always ON Ratio issue Make pMOS about ¼ effective strength of pulldown network Dynamic Logic...
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