Email: [email protected] Office Hours: Fridays 1200-1300 Biology 364 Animal Physiology Respiratory System uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide Circulatory System primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functions Ion and water regulation deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen
excretion Grading and assessment Marking Scheme Problem sets: 30% 1 per section (3 total) These will be representative of questions given on the final exam. Final: Open book/notes - 70% Animal Physiology - definition
The study of how animals work Knut Schmidt-Nielsen Structure and function of various parts - How these parts work together Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws
Physiological processes are usually regulated Homeostasis maintenance of internal constancy Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment Genotype genetic makeup
Phenotype expression of genotype in morphology, physiology, and behavior Phenotypic plasticity single genotype generates more than one phenotypic outcome depending on environmental conditions Genotype is the product of evolution Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
Physiological processes obey physical and chemical laws Physical properties of a material are linked to function (e.g., bone) Chemical laws govern molecular interactions (e.g., effects of temperature) Electrical laws describe
membrane function, including excitable cells Body size influences biochemical and physical patterns allometric scaling Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Physiological processes are usually regulated Homeostasis maintenance of internal
constancy How Howdo doanimals animalsdeal dealwith with variations in their
environment? variations in their environment? Physiological Regulation Conformers (a) Allow internal conditions to change when faced with variations in external conditions (b) Internal
environment adjusts to reflect external conditions Physiological Regulation Moyes and Schulte; Figure 1.4 Physiological Regulation Regulators
(a) Maintain relatively constant internal conditions regardless of the conditions in the external environment (b) Keep internal environment within narrow limits Physiological Regulation Homeostasis Maintenance of internal conditions in the
face of environmental perturbations Controlled by feedback loops or reflex control pathways Negative feedback loops Positive feedback loops Figure 1.5 Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1)
Phenotype is a product of genotype and its interaction with the environment Genotype genetic makeup Phenotype morphology, physiology, and behavior Phenotypic plasticity single genotype generates more than one phenotype depending on environmental conditions Phenotypic Plasticity Can be irreversible or reversible Irreversible Polyphenism - developmental plasticity Reversible
Acclimation - lab Acclimatization natural environment Unifying Themes in Physiology (Table 1.1) Genotype is the product of evolution Adaptation Change in a population over evolutionary time (i.e. many generations) Trait that confers an increase in reproductive success
via natural selection Physiology and evolution Physiologists attempt to understand and account for diversity of animal body form and strategies that animals use to cope with their environments Two types of questions Proximate cause How? Ultimate cause Why?
Biology 364 Animal Physiology Respiratory System uptake of oxygen and removal of carbon dioxide Circulatory System primary internal transport for substances (eg oxygen & nutrients) and other functions Ion and water regulation deals with ion and water balance, and nitrogen excretion
Astronomy. 8th grade Science. Earth in Space. Ancient astronomers and Egyptians were among the first people to study the stars and movement of the sun. It seemed to them as though Earth were standing still and the sun and moon...
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