Biomolecules and Biofuels Laura Penman Q. Why Biofuel? What are the sources of biofuel? A Biofuel can be any renewable organic
molecule that releases usable energy Renewable: able to be generated repeatedly Organic: based on carbon skeletons From living things or once-living things Four different kinds of organic molecules Carbohydrates Sugar-based (starches, glycogen, cellulose)
Proteins Amino acid based (actin, keratin, collagen) Lipids Dont mix well with water (oils and fats) Nucleic Acids
Nucleotide-based (DNA and RNA) Molecules can be put together OH HO H O-H
O Dehydration Synthesis!! Molecules can also be broken down O H
O-H OH Hydrolysis HO
Note that water (H20) is involved in both! Dehydration synthesis removes H+ and OH- from two different molecules to synthesize (put together) a polymer Hydrolysis uses a water molecule to split (lyse) a big molecule into two smaller ones
Connections to biofuel Hydrolysis is often used to release energy from molecules (Dehydration synthesis is used to build complex polymers) Your body uses organic molecules as fuel
Calorie : a measure of energy in a molecule 9 calories /gram lipids 4 calories/gram carbohydrate 4 calories / gram protein So do your automobile engines
Biodiesel Oil-based plant or animal sources Ethanol Sugar-based Plant sources
Q. What is ethanol? Aka. ethyl alcohol Clear, colorless liquid Flammable Q. How is alcohol/ethanol made?
By fermenting sugars Fructose Maltose Sucrose What do you suppose -ose means? Q. How does the
sugar get fermented? By yeast, when oxygen isnt present BASIC ethanol production Carbohydrate source sugars ethanol The challenge
EASY Been there, done that Does ethanol production from carbohydrates involve Hydrolysis or Dehydration synthesis?
BASIC ethanol production Carbohydrate source sugars ethanol The challenge EASY Been there, done that
Major players in biofuel ethanol (NOT grape juice) Corn sugars/starches PRO: fermentation technique is established Starchsugar ethanol CON: $ to plant each year, irrigate, fertilize
Sugar cane PRO: fermentation technique is established Sugar ethanol CON: doesnt grow in the USA Switchgrass and willow
PRO: native perennial to most of USA, easy to grow CON: processing is not worked out yet Cellulose-->sugar????? Which leads us to todays lab Switchgrass (Panicum virgatum) --a low-cost and low-labor source of cellulose in this region Perennial (harvest biomass yearly)
Minimal nutrient requirements Able to handle a range of water conditions Cellulose is in the cell walls of each plant cell Cellulose Molecule Cellulose fibers
Switchgrass Switchgrass provides a great source of biomass (potential fuel) BIG organic molecules (like cellulose) are called polymers Made from small subunit molecules called monomers
Cellulose structure Cellulose is a chain molecule made of small units of glucose (sugar): Choose one: Cellulose is a monomer or polymer? Choose one: Glucose is a monomer or polymer? glucose
A special chemical was found that breaks down cellulose polymers into glucose! AccelLerase If we maximize this breakdown process, we will have plenty of glucose to ferment! Your challenges are : To determine what kind of molecule accellerase is
(Part 1) To determine the effect of pH on this process! (Part 2) Accellerase is an organic molecule You will learn which type in lab (Part II) Indicators change colors in the presence of certain molecules
Benedicts turns blue-- if it is a sugar Iodine turns black-- if it is a starch Biurets turns purple-- if it is a protein Sudan IV turns red-- if it is a lipid
What kind of molecule is Accellerase? Sugar Carbohydrate Test name Color of negative control Material in
positive control Color or positive control Color of Accellerase after test Starch
Carbohydrate Protein Lipid Maximizing Accellerase What can we control in order to get the most
bang for our buck? Prepare experiment to study two factors 1) pH 2) size of switchgrass material Size of switchgrass material Your group will be assigned one of the following types of switchgrass
Cut switchgrass leaves Pelletized switchgrass leaves Powdered switchgrass leaves Every group will examine the effect of pH on accellerase activity
Treatment series 1 (Tubes 1, 2, 3, and 4) 4 tubes containing 15 ml of the following solutions pH 3, pH 5, pH 7, pH 9 Add 5 g switchgrass to each tube Add 0.5 ml Accellerase Treatment series 2 (Tubes 5, 6, 7, and 8)
4 tubes containing 15 ml of the following solutions pH 3, pH 5, pH 7, pH 9 Add 5 g switchgrass to each tube DO NOT add Accellerase pH ___3____ Switchgrass +
Accellerase Switchgrass without Accellerase pH ___5____ pH ___7____
pH ____9___ ASSIGNMENT for next lab period: Complete questions in handout for part I Also form hypotheses regarding pH and pretreatment of switchgrass
Did accellerase increase glucose production? Were the effects of accellerase similar for all pH levels? Which pH helped accellerase work the best? Prepare a graph showing your results. Based on your graph, which pH range would you want to test as you iron out the technique?
Accellerase & Cellulose breakdown Some enzymes are used by organisms to break down (digest) polymers (Other enzymes are used by organisms to build polymers) Enzymes end with -ase Cellulase enzymes can break down cellulose into its sugar molecules. Conversion of cellulose Cellulose molecule
1- The enzyme recognizes the cellulose molecule 2- The enzyme cuts the atomic bond 3- One molecule of glucose is released 4- The enzyme advances to the other unit
The enzyme processes along the cellulose molecule Cellulase (enzyme) The cellulose is converted into fermentable sugars
Enzymes are proteins The function of enzymes relies on their shape. Denaturation: permanent loss of enzyme function by permanently altering its shape Temperature too high pH too high or too low Biomolecule Review
Remember that Ethanol is sugar-based Biodiesel is lipid-based Source for ethanol or biofuel? Source for ethanol or biofuel?
Source for ethanol or biofuel? Source for ethanol or biofuel? Source for ethanol or biofuel? Source for ethanol or biofuel?
Source for ethanol or biofuel? Source for ethanol or biofuel?
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