Blooms Taxonomy Aunul Islam, PhD Education Consultant Taxonomy Its a science and practice of classification The word finds its roots in the Greek Language Taxis meaning order, arrangement and Nomos law or science Taxonomy may refer to: Science, General, Business and Economics, Education WHICH OF THESE *COGNITIVE SKILLS WILL BE USED BY A LEARNER WHEN BEING TAUGHT OR TRAINED:
Blooms Taxonomy of Learning Domains Three Domains of Learning Blooms Revised Taxonomy Introduction Bloom's Taxonomy was created in 1956 A research committee led by educational psychologist Dr Benjamin Bloom to promote higher forms of thinking in education analysing and evaluating concepts, processes, procedures and principles rather than just remembering facts (rote learning) most often used when designing educational, training, and learning processes Three domains (categories) of
learning Cognitive: mental skills or knowledge - (K) Psychomotor: Manual or physical skills (S) Affective: Growth in feelings or emotional areas (attitude or self) - A Above referred to as KSA by educators, trainers and researchers KSA These categories of behaviours may be considered as goals of learning That is, after a learning or training process/episodes a learner should have acquired new knowledge, skills and/0r attitude Bloom and his committee made extensive compilation of work related to Cognitive (Knowledge) and Affective (attitude) domains
BUT omitted the Psychomotor (skills) due to limitation of teaching manual skills HOWEVER other researchers were able to create 3 models with respect to Psychomotor (manual skills ) Categories (Revised) within the Cognitive domain Remember Understand Apply Analyse Evaluate Create THE CATEGORIES CAN BE CONSIDERED AS DEGREES OF DIFFICULTIES. THAT IS FIRST ONE MUST BE MUSTERED BEFORE THE NEXT ONE CAN BE ACHIEVED.
4. Analyse 6. Create Revised Blooms Taxonomy (Krathwohl, et al. 2000) What do they mean? Remember exhibit memory of learning material through recall Understand demonstrate understanding of key facts and
concepts Apply solve problems when faced with new situations Analyse examine and break down to generalise and make inferences Evaluate judge information to present and defend opinions Create put parts together to form a new / alternative whole Why is this important to understand? These are the levels at which learning takes place. Allows instructions to learners and teaching strategies to be categorised. It also represents an evolution of learning maturity. Revised Blooms Taxonomy Lorin Anderson, a former student of Bloom, along with coresearcher David Krathwohl revisited the cognitive domain in the
midnineties. Some changes were made with perhaps the three most prominent ones being (Anderson, et al 2000): >> Changing the names from noun to verb in all the six categories >> Rearranging them ( as illustrated in the previous slide ) >>Creating processes and levels of knowledge matrix This new taxonomy reflects a more active form of thinking and is perhaps more accurate Cognitive processes and levels of knowledge matrix (rubric) The below three levels added within each categories and adding another level of knowledge metacognition (intuition) Factual The basic elements students must know to be The basic elements students must know to be
acquainted with a discipline or solve problems. Conceptual The interrelationships among the basic elements within a larger structure that enable them to function together. Procedural The basic elements students must know to be How to do something, methods of inquiry, and criteria for using skills, algorithms, techniques, and methods. Matrix (Krathwohl and Anderson) Knowled Remem ge ber Dimensi on Factual Conceptu al Procedur
al *Metacognitiv e Understa Apply nd Analyse Evaluate Create Further matrix (Clark et al 2004;Clark et al 2007) Knowled Remem ge ber
Dimensi on Understa nd Apply Analyse Evaluat Create e Facts List
Paraphrase classify outline rank categoris e Concepts recall
explain show contrast criticise modify Processe s outline estimate
produce diagram defend design Procedur es reproduc e Give an example
relate identify critique plan Principles state converts solve differentia te
conclud e revise MetaProper Cognitive use interpret discover infer predict actualise
References Anderson, L.W., Krathwohl, D.R., Airasian, P.W.,Cruikshank, K.A., Mayer, R.E., Pintrich, P.R., Raths, J.,Wittrock, M.C. (2001).A Taxonomy for Learning, Teaching, and Assessing: A revision of Bloom's Taxonomy of Educational Objectives. New York: Pearson, Allyn & Bacon. Bloom, B.S. (Ed.). Engelhart, M.D., Furst, E.J., Hill, W.H.,Krathwohl, D.R. (1956).Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, Handbook I: The Cognitive Domain. New York:David McKay Co Inc. Clark, R., Chopeta, L. (2004). Graphics for Learning :Proven Guidelines for Planning, Designing, and Evaluating Visuals in Training Materials . San Francisco: JosseyBass/Pfeiffer. Thank you!
Pavitts Taxonomy! Why dont you all have a read on this!
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