Bone and Skeletal Tissue - Mrs. Percy's Website

Bone and Skeletal Tissue - Mrs. Percy's Website

Bone and Skeletal Tissue 3 Types of Cartilage: Hyaline Function: support and flexibility. It makes up:

Articular cartilage, costal cartilage, laryngeal cartilage, tracheal cartilage, nasal cartilage, epiphyseal plate

Elastic -repeated bending -Makes up the external ear and epiglottis

Fibrocartilage Highly compressible. It makes up: -discs between the vertebrae, meniscus of the

knee, and the pubic symphysis Five functions of bone 1. Support 2. Protection 3. Movement

4. Mineral storage 5. Blood cell formation = hematopoiesis Hematopoesis Infants have

red marrow in the medullary cavity Adults have red marrow in spongy bone and yellow

marrow in medullary cavity Parts of a Bone Periosteum- a 2 layer membrane

around the diaphysis-contains nerves and blood vessels -The outside periosteum is tough-provides protection -The inside periosteum is made of osteogenic cells -osteoblasts- bone germinators

(builders) -osteoclasts- bone crushers Endosteum- inside lining of the marrow cavity. It also lines all of the canals in bone

Type of bone (compact vs spongy) Compact bone- made of long cylinders called osteons Supplied with blood by Haversian

canals-up & down (vertical) They are linked by Volkmanns canals-across (horizontal) Structure of Bone Spongy Bone

-Spongy bone- trabeculae resists stress in adults, it contains marrow (produces blood) Long Bone Longer than they are wide Diaphysis-shaft; surrounds the

medullary cavity. Mostly compact bone Epiphysis-ends, spongy bone inside, compact bone outside Joint surface=articular cartilage Epiphyseal line=growth plate

Short Bones roughly cube like Ex: wrist, ankle, sesamoid (patella) Mostly spongy bone, thin compact cover

Flat Bones flat, thin, curved Ex: ribs, skull Parallel compact bone surface, spongy bone

inside Irregular Bones -complicated shapes Ex: vertebrae, hip -Mostly spongy

bone thats enclosed by thin compact bone Bones are made of organic and inorganic components

Organic-osteoblasts, osteoclasts (cells) -Osteoids: proteoglycans (protein), collagen fibers Inorganic-hydroxyapatites/mineral salts Calcium

Necessary for: Nerve impulses Muscle contractions Blood coagulation Secretion of glands Cell division

How calciums Obtained Calcium is obtained in your diet and absorbed in the intestine under the control of vitamin D Diet should contain: Proteins, Vitamin C,

Vitamin A, Vitamin B12, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium and manganese for bone health (makes bones harder, makes calcitonin) Vitamin D is synthesized in skin High Calcium Levels Change in plasma calcium homeostasis

Detected by thyroid gland secretes calcitonin Affects osteoblasts in bone tissue osteoblasts build bone by depositing calcium removes calcium from plasma (blood) reduces plasma calcium levels

(in blood) Low Calcium Levels A change in plasma calcium homeostasis Detected by the parathyroid gland

secretes Parathyroid Hormone PTH affects osteoclasts in bone tissue osteoclasts break down bone by removing calcium deposits the calcium in the plasma increases plasma calcium levels (in blood)

Low vs. High Calcium Levels Calcium is absorbed from the small intestine under the control of Vitamin D Low calcium causes failure of many systems

High calcium causes salt deposits in kidneys, blood vessels Osteogenesis-bone creation Bone is always changing, growing,

remodeling and repairing Wolffs Law- a bone will remodel in response to demands or forces placed on it ex: ballet dancer, weight lifter

Prenatal to Young Adult Steps in Ossification Steps in ossification 1. starts as hyaline cartilage 2. bone replaces cartilage at

periosteum 3. bone replaces cartilage at medulla 4. bone replaces cartilage at ends 5. only cartilage remaining is at ends

(articular cartilage) and epiphyseal Fractures 1. Simple- clean; closed break 2. Compound- broken ends; break through skin 3. Comminuted- fragmented (aged) 4. Compression- crushed

5. Depressed- pressed inward (skull) 6. Impacted- ends forced into each other (the result of a fall) 7. Spiral- ragged, twisted (sports) 8. Greenstick- break is incomplete (common in children)

Compound and Compressed Fractures Spiral and Depressed Fracture Steps in Repair 1. Hematoma forms 2. Fibrocartilaginous callus

formation-splints the broken bone 3. Bony (hard) callus 4. Remodeling-excess bone is broken down by osteoclasts Osteoporosis

Bone loss due to hormonal changes that interfere with calcium deposits in bone that leads to spinal problems and fractures. It occurs at/after menopause Rickets

-Childhood disorder caused by the lack of calcium and vitamin D in the diet. The bones are soft and do

not support the weight, so they Pagets Disease Caused by the uneven deposits of calcium

Spina Bifida Birth defect The bones of the spine (vertebrae) dont form properly around the spinal cord, so the cord bulges out It can be mild or severe

Can be prevented by 70% by having enough folic acid in the diet

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