بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

بسم الله الرحمن الرحيم

Presenting the paper: HonestyHumility and the HEXACO structure of religiosity and well-being Aghababaei, Bachnio, Arji, Chiniforoushan, Tekke, & Fazeli Mehrabadi. (in press). HonestyHumility and the HEXACO structure of religiosity and well-being. Current Psychology. DOI: 10.1007/s12144-015-9310-5 Religion Well-being &

mental health Personality . The set of psychological traits and mechanism within individual that are organized and relatively enduring and that influence his or her interactions with, and adaptations to, intrapsychic, physical, and

social environments. Trait: a relatively stable tendency to think, feel, and act in certain ways. Previously known Personality = a strong predictor of subjective well-being (SWB) Extraversion positive affects Neuroticism negative affects the genetic link between SWB and personality

Previously known Major personality correlates of religiosity: Within Eysencks model: Psychoticism Within the Big Five/Five Factor model: Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, & (to some extent) Extraversion Previously shown Relations of well-being and mental heath with Religious orientation, attitude to religion, interest in religion, attendance, prayers, rituals, religious belief, religious doubt, attachment to God, gratitude to God, importance of God,

nearness to God, religious experience, Haj, etc. Much of the research: positive relations A few: no association A few: negative association Current study Consists of 5 samples from Iran, Poland, & Malaysia Measured variables: HEXACO model of personality Religious orientation

Well-being: SWB: happiness, life satisfaction, & self-esteem Psychological well-being Why sampling different cultures? Relations among religiosity, personality and well-being may vary by population ?Why use HEXACO HEXACO out-predicted the Big Five model with regard to a variety of variables including

religiosity, & psychological well-being HEXACO model of personality structure HonestyHumility -

Emotionality eXtraversion Agreeableness Conscientiousness Openness to experience ( )

Authors of the HEXACO Michael C. Ashton Brock University Kibeom Lee University of Calgary

HonestyHumility Sincerity Fairness Greed Avoidance Modesty

Emotionality

Fearfulness Anxiety Dependence Sentimentality

eXtraversion

Social Self-Esteem Social Boldness Sociability Liveliness

Agreeableness Forgiveness Gentleness

Flexibility Patience

Organization Diligence Perfectionism Prudence

Openness to experience Aesthetic Appreciation

Inquisitiveness Creativity Unconventionality http://hexaco.org

Comparison of HonestyHumility & Agreeableness These two correspond to two aspects of reciprocal altruism, the tendency to cooperate with another even when one could get away with defecting ) ( and reciprocation has not been forthcoming (

) HonestyHumility represents active cooperativeness (nonexploitation) Agreeableness represents reactive cooperativeness (non-retaliation) Well-being Well-being = positive side of mental health Two approaches in defining well-being: hedonic Hedonia involves seeking pleasure and enjoyment, and avoiding pain.

eudaimonic Eudaimonia is focused on what is intrinsically worthwhile to human beings and involves seeking to develop and use the best in oneself. Assessing well-being Common indicators of hedonic well-being: Happiness Life satisfaction Self-esteem

Most frequently used measure of eudaimonic well-being: Ryffs Scales Psychological Well-being Self-acceptance Positive relations with others Autonomy

Environmental mastery Purpose in life Personal growth Carol D. Ryff Why use different indicators of well-being? Relations among religiosity, personality & well-being may vary by the manner in which these constructs are operationalized

Measuring religiosity (not religion) Gordon W. Allport (1897-1967) theory; one of the most influential theories in the contemporary psychology of religion Richard Gorsuch Why use the religious orientation paradigm? in predicting well-being, differences in religious involvement are less important than differences in religious orientation

The results Major personality correlates of religiosity: So, higher levels of religiosity are HonestyHumility associated with both aspects of reciprocal altruism. Agreeableness Conscientiousness (to some extent) Extraversion The results The findings highlight two of religions broad

functions: promoting personal stability (Conscientiousness) social harmony and others welfare (Honesty Humility & Agreeableness) Religiosity-Extraversion links suggests: Religion is also concerned with other key functions of human personality (e.g., Social Self-Esteem and Liveliness). The results Well-beings link to personality factors:

strong positive relations with Extraversion negative relations with Emotionality positive relations with HonestyHumility Null or weak positive relations with SWB Consistent positive relations with psychological well-being The results: Cultural (in)differences Religiosity correlated positively with all three dimensions of Agreeableness, Conscientiousness, & HonestyHumility, across different religious populations: Iran

Malaysia Poland & the United States The finding reported elsewhere Polish Psychological Bulletin Aghababaei, N., & Bachnio, A., Arji, A., Chiniforoushan, M., & Mohammadtabar, S. (in press). The relations among well-being, religiosity, and personality. Polish Psychological Bulletin. The question Religionwell-being relation affected by personality?

Personality and religion both predict well-being but the two predictors have not often been investigated together. To be of ultimate value for science, numinous constructs need to show that they represent something new about individuals. Piedmont et al. (2009): the Big Five paradigm = a base of prediction against which the contribution of religiosity can be compared The methods 7 surveys (total N = 1,530) from Iran & Poland

Adults, & university students, Measured variables: HEXACO model of personality The Big Five model of personality Religious orientation Well-being: SWB: happiness, life satisfaction, & self-esteem Psychological well-being The findings Religiosity managed to explain variance in

some aspects of positive functioning beyond personality factors. The null or week relationship of religiosity with well-being beyond personality was consistent across the HEXACO and the Big Five models of personality structure. It has been suggested that religion is relatively more important for eudaimonic than for hedonic way of living. The final question how religion contributes to well-being and mental health?

Possible mediators: Purpose in life Social support Compassion

Optimism/hope Death anxiety Self-control Forgiveness : .)1391( . . .40-25 19 . .)1393( . .

-17 )1(9 .28

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