Building Bridges: Teaching Resources for Research Scientists
Assessment: The Hidden Variable of Achievement A Field-tested Learning Assessment Guide (FLAG) for STEM Instructors Michael Zeilik University of New Mexico (www.flaguide.org) Pop Quiz! In terms of learning gains, which instructor attribute enhances achievement the most? A. Teaching experience B. Clarity of presentations C. Energy and enthusiasm D. Deep knowledge of subject E. None of the above What Works?
20th Century Gain Results Active Learning, Mastery Learning (SD 0.5, 0.5 PSI, discussion, debates, games, role playing, controversy) Cooperative Learning (SD 0.5, 0.5 cognitive and affective; century of research, all disciplines) One-on-One Tutoring (SD = 2, with trained tutors) What Does Not Work? (Small gains SD < 0.3) EVERYTHING ELSE! Lectures (standard model), reinforce memorization! Unstructured discussion, supervised independent study, autonomous small groups, self study Audio-tutorials, programmed instruction, computer-based instruction, instructional television, Web-based instruction
What Works in Context: Physics & Astronomy Disciplinary education research, uses tools of the trade to conduct experiments Create a mostly empirical robust knowledge base about learning in physics & astronomy Probe initial state (prior knowledge), final state (learning outcomes), and student thinking Measurement: Assessment! Galileo Galilei: Measure what is measurable, and make measurable what is not so. But: Measure what you value, and value what you measure. (M. Zeilik) FLAG Features
Assessment Basics What is this assessment business all about? Making Goals What do you want to measure? Classroom Assessment Techniques (CATs) How do you measure it? Searchable DatabaseToolbox What are good tools for measurement? All peer reviewed and evidence based FLAG CATs Attitudinal Surveys: E. Seymour, E. Lewis Concept Tests: A. Ellis Concept Maps: M. Zeilik
Conceptual Diagnostic Tests: M. Zeilik Interviews: M. Smith, S. A. Southerland Performance Assessments: T. Slater Portfolios: T. Slater Scoring Rubrics: D. Ebert-May Student Assessment of Learning Gains: E. Seymour Weekly Reports: E. Etkina Mathematical Thinking: M. Swan, J. Rideway Multiple-Choice Tests: J. Parkes Minute Papers: M. Zeilik
Minute Paper Take a few minutes at the end of class and ask for a written response to: What was the most important concept you learned in class? What important question remains unanswered? What was the muddiest point of this class? Few Minute Paper: Teams reach consensus, submit written report Analysis: Sort into themes (cards) Weekly Report: Extended minute paper Concept Tests Quick feedback on conceptual (not factual) understanding Instructor gives conceptual question with choices (common misconceptions) After a minute, whole class responds (hands, flash cards, class polling system) Instructor assesses responses: If most incorrect, pair up do discuss
(peer teaching) Class response again to gauge mastery; instructor adapts in real time Earth asteroid The magnitude of the force exerted by the asteroid on the Earth is a) larger than the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on the asteroid b) the same as the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on the asteroid c) smaller than the magnitude of the force exerted by the Earth on the asteroid d) zero. (the asteroid exerts no force on the Earth) Results: Midwestern Universities (Dostal) (P111, conceptual; P221 calc; P112 algebra) Larger than: Same as:
5% 91 5% 101 Student Assessments Attitude Surveys: Perceptions about course, discipline; seem easy-not!, best based on a robust, field-tested model Minute Paper: Given limited resources, what one change would you make to improve this course?; sort by themes Student Assessment of Learning Gains (SALG): Probes learning gains that students perceive; avoids performance critiques; easily customized (15 min); available on-line UNM P102 SALG Spring 2003 (Mean = 3.38)
Error Bars are Standard Deviations 3.99 Videos 3.75 CT/CRS 4.15 Coop quizzes 3.71 Activities 3.64 Team work 3.52 Discussions
82 60 60 Not significant Not significant Not significant Not significant Conceptual Diagnostic Tests Ideally research-based on misconceptions, revealed by student think aloud interviews Measures pre/post conceptual gains as a summative assessment Force Concept Inventory (FCI; 1985);
Astronomy Diagnostic Test (ADT; 1999) version 2; national baselines; large data sample (about 5,000) Follow protocol! ADT 2 UNM Fall 2000 vs. National F) = 0.84 => 80% of postscores above mean of pres M) = 0.53 => 70% of postscores above mean of pres 30 25 30 25 20 26 28 22 20
Females 15 Males 10 All 5 0 Gain (National) (Pre = 5346; Post = 3842) Gain (UNM) Pre/post: ADT National Project/UNM = (post% - pre%)/(100% - pre%) 60 50
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