Building Healthy 'Communities of Opportunity'

Building Healthy 'Communities of Opportunity'

August 11, 2012 IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS: IMPLICATIONS FOR EDUCATION AND OTHER CRITICAL OPPORTUNITY DOMAINS A Presentation to the National Association for the Education of African American Children with Learning Disabilities Tom Rudd, Director Education and Emerging Research Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity WHAT IS IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS? Implicit racial bias is a mental process that causes most of us to have negative attitudes about people or groups of people based only on their race or ethnicity. Many researchers believe that implicit

racial bias is fueled by symbolic attitudes that we all develop over the course of ourmessages lives starting a are very These attitudes are formed from distorted thatat we early of age. exposed to every day from a variety sourcestelevision, newspapers, magazines, conversations with people we trustthat depict African Americans and other people of color in a negative light. 2 Typically, these people are not members of our own racial or ethnic in

group, although implicit bias can also be directed at people who look and think like we do. 3 Self- Our refusal to talk about and confront issues reinforcin g of race reinforces implicit racial bias Unconscious attitudes are less egalitarian than what we explicitly think about race Implicit racial bias resides in our unconscious mind, the part of the brain that many researchers believe is beyond our direct control Less Egalitaria n Hidden

MOST PEOPLE ARE NOT AWARE OF THEIR OWN IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS WHAT ARE SYMBOLIC/IMPLICIT ATTITUDES? symbolic attitudes are mental predispositions or emotional lenses that determine how we respond to relevant social and cultural phenomena . For example, the symbol of White racial superiority might stimulate opposition to busing as a means of achieving school integration. What researchers say about symbolic attitudes: A child will hate communism if that concept is paired with contemptuous or derogatory expression each time he or she hears it. The individuals needs or interests are irrelevant to attitude formation (Lau, 1978). Attitude development may take place without regard to whether or not the individuals needs are satisfied, such as by a process of simple conditioning. That is, attitudes may often be acquired simply by being paired with positive or negative unconditioned stimuli (Staats, 1958). people acquire stable affective preference through conditioning in their pre-adult years, with little calculation of the future costs and benefits of these attitudes. The most important of these are presumably some rather general predispositions, such as party identification, liberal or conservative ideology, nationalism, or racial prejudice. When confronted with new policy issues later in life, people respond to these new attitudes on the basis of cognitive consistency. The critical variable would

be the similarity of symbols posed by the policy issue to those of long-standing predispositions (Sears, 1980). 4 In his book, The Political Brain: The Role of Emotion in Deciding the Fate of the Nation (2007), Professor Drew Westen tells us that Irrespective of what we may feel and believe consciously, most White Americansincluding many who hold consciously progressive values and attitudesharbor negative associations toward people of color. 5 THE MEDIUM IS THE MESSAGE because whites and blacks in America still live largely segregated lives, white America's picture of African-American life is acquired disproportionately through the media (Kirkus Reviews, 2012)

6 IMPLICIT ASSOCIATION TEST (IAT) A tool for measuring implicit bias The Harvard Implicit Association Test for race reveals racial bias by measuring the amount of time it takes an individual to make an association between two concepts displayed as either words or images. So, for example, a person with implicit bias against African Americans might take longer to associate the word good with a Black face than with a White face. 7 IAT: WHY SHOULD WE CARE ABOUT IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS? Research at the Kirwan Institute suggests that implicit racial bias is one of the two principal forces that energize widespread racial and ethnic inequality in our society (the other is structural racialization). Understanding the causes of implicit racial bias and pushing back against its consequences are critical to the movement for social justice and racial equality. Negative Symbolic Attitudes Racial Inequality

& Injustice Discrimination 8 Implicit Racial Bias Prejudice & Racial Stereotyping CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS 9 Many municipalities continue to resistant building affordable housing in high opportunity suburban areas. Too often affordable housing is situated in racially

segregated lowopportunity communities characterized by lowperforming schools, high unemployment and high crime rates. Evidence suggests that many African American borrowers were targeted for risky subprime loans even when their credit histories would have qualified them for more conventional mortgage loans (New York Times, 2007). African American homebuyers are steered to neighborhoods where residents are predominately of the same race. Homeowners insurance claims are denied on the basis of race. Credit scores or insurance scores are used to price

homeowners insurance. Banks fail to adequately maintain foreclosed properties in Housing CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS A study conducted in Milwaukee by Northwestern University sociologist Devah Pager found that White job applicants with a criminal record were more likely than Back applicants without a criminal record to be called back for a job interview (Price, 2003). In 2010, the U.S. Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC) announced that private sector workplace discrimination charge filings reached an unprecedented 99,922.

In a 2003 study, researchers found that job applicants with White sounding names received 50 percent more callbacks for interviews than applicants with Black sounding names (Bertrand, 2003). Armond L. Rochambeau III 10 Employment CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Justice 11 Criminal Racial profiling: The practice of targeting individuals

for differential treatment or suspecting individuals of unlawful or unethical behavior based solely on the individuals perceived race or ethnicity (Rudd, Introduction to racial profiling survey, 2012) Research suggests that all-White juries are more likely to convict non-White defendants than White defendants for the same crime (Cole, 1999). Research shows that defendants who kill White victims are much more likely to receive the death penalty than those who kill Black victims (Baldis, 1990). Research suggests that defendants with more Afrocentric facial features (regardless of race) receive longer sentences for the same crimes than defendants with fewer Afro-centric facial features (Blair, et al., 2004).

Research on shooter bias (also called the shooter effect) suggests that, in simulation tests, a White person requires less decision time to shoot an unarmed Black man than to shoot an armed White New York City Police Stops 2010 Matthew Bloch, Ford Fessenden and Janet Roberts New York Police Department; Center for Constitutional Rights; New York Civil Liberties Union; New York Housing Authority; Andrew A. Beveridge,; Census Source: New York Times, July 11, 2010 12 Radar Gun 13 14 CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS

Education Teacher Expectations 15 A teacher may sayand explicitly believe that he or she has equal expectations for all students, while in fact, implicit racial bias lowers expectations for students of color and stimulates subtle differences in the way the teacher behaves toward these studentsless praise and recognition and more discipline, for example. A 2001 study conducted at seven integrated schools in southeastern

Louisiana shows that White students were treated more favorably than Black students by their White female teachers (Casteel, 1998). These subtle differences, often driven by implicit racial bias, can affect a students self-esteem, motivation and academic performance. CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Segregation 16 Since the passage of Brown V. Board of Education, White families have participated in a mass exodus from metropolitan school districts to avoid school and neighborhood integration.

Physical distance between racial groups is an indication of their perceived social distance. In a phenomenon called tipping, White residents of a formerly all-White neighborhood tend to move out when the percentage of Black residents reaches 15% (Chideya, 1995). By 1991, the proportion of African American students attending intensely segregated schools (90 to 100 percent students of color) returned to the same level as in 1971, when the Supreme Court issued its first school desegregation busing decision. One-third of all Black and Latino students attend schools where more than 75 percent of students receive free or reduced lunch. In contrast, only 4% of White children do (Nittle, 2010). Today, one-third of Black students attend school in places where

the Black population is more than 90 percent (Lockette, 2010). Education CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Disproportionate Discipline African American students, and especially African American boys, are disciplined more often and receive more out-of-school suspensions and expulsions than White students who commit the same offenses. A 2009-2010 survey of 72,000 schools (kindergarten through high school) shows that while Black students made up only 18 percent of those enrolled in the schools sampled, they accounted for 35 percent of those suspended once, 46 percent of those suspended more than once and 39 percent of all expulsions (Lewin, 2012)

Over all, Black students were three and a half times as likely to be suspended or expelled than their White peers (Lewin, 2012) Over 70 percent of the students involved in arrests ordiscipline, referred to Thelaw Source: school-related Lewin, T. (2012). Black students face more data suggest. New York Times, March 6. Retrieved from were Hispanic or Black (Lewin, 2010) harsh-discipline-data-shows.html 17 Education African American students appear to be referred to the office for less serious and

more subjective reasons. Coupled with extensive and highly consistent prior data, these results argue that disproportionate representation of African Americans in office referrals, suspension and expulsion is evidence of a pervasive and systematic bias that may well be inherent in the use of exclusionary discipline. Indiana Education Policy Center 2000 18 CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Education Disproportionate Tacking to Special Education 19 African American children represent only 17 percent of the school population but constitute more than 30 percent of the children in special education

(Kunjufu, 2009). Only 27 percent of African American male special education students graduate from high school (Lewin, 2012) African American children are more likely than their peers with the same disability to be overrepresented in more restrictive settings, or underrepresented in the general education setting (Skiba, et al., 2000) Often, assignment to special education is the result of cultural deficit thinking, i.e., bias against the different language styles, appearance, and behavior of students of color. Deficit thinking pathologizes behavior that differs from White middle class norms and uses these differences to categorize a child as disabled (Abraham, et al., 2011)

Black students with disabilities constituted 21 percent of the total, but 44 percent of those with disabilities who are subject to mechanical restraints, like being strapped down (Lewin, 2012) The state of crisis for black boys is based on a need to look at the overall issues impacting their lives and to consider new approaches to dealing with the problem. Special education has been used as an automatic answer to behavior and emotional problems that can and should be addressed in a variety of ways. In many cases, Ritalin and special education are seen as quick fixes. Ritalin is the fifth leading drug in America after nicotine, alcohol, cocaine and marijuana. The problem is systemic. Little boys in need of positive role models, needing more academic support, boys who come to school hungry, some who have been abused, boys with a slow start in early school preparation, precocious or

hyperactive boys all may find themselves with the same future in special education. Kenjufu, J. (2009). Black boys and special education change is needed. Teachers of Dr. Kunjufu Dr. Jawanza Jawanza Kunjufu Magazine. Retrieved from Color 2009 2009 and-special-education-change-is-needed/ CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Education Absence of Advanced Placement Courses 21

The National Association for College Admission Counseling found that grades in college preparatory courses were the top factor that colleges considered in the admission decision (Abdul-Alim, 2012) Four out of five African American graduates were either left out of an AP subject for which they had potential or attended a school that did not offer the subject (The College Board, 2012) Californias best high schools offer so many A.P. and honors classes which confer bonus points on a students G.P.A. that the average G.P.A. of White

and Asian freshmen at U.C.L.A. is now 4.2. At many of the largely black high schools around Los Angeles, it is sometimes impossible to do much better than a 4.0, because of the relative lack of A.P. classes 22 Source: The College Board, 8th Annual AP Report to the Nation, February 2012 CONSEQUENCES OF IMPLICIT RACIAL BIAS Education Stereotype Threat Stereotype threat is an unconscious response to a prevailing negative stereotype about an identifiable group by a member of that group (Rudd, 2012). For example: 23 WHAT CAN WE DO ?

Talk about race in a transformative way. Connect with people from racial and ethnic groups that are different from your own. Expose racial disparities in critical opportunity domains, including education, but also lift up examples of people who have overcome barriers to opportunity. Educate multiple audiences, including teachers, employers, judges, politicians, and high school students, about the causes and consequences of implicit racial bias (in language that is accessible to these audiences). Evaluate media messages more critically for evidence of racial and ethnic bias.

Carefully, critically, and honestly examine our own racial attitudes for evidence of implicit bias. 24 Educate all students to become agents of change to improve opportunity for all people in the society Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity 33 West 11th Avenue Columbus, Ohio 43201 614-688-5429 Tom Rudd Director of Education and Emerging Research [email protected] 614-247-8458 25 APPENDIX

26 WORKS CITED Abdul-Alim, J. (2012). AP courses not available for Black students. Diverse Issues in Higher Education, February 9. Retrieved from Ahram, R., Fergus, E., & Noguera, P. (2011). Addressing racial/ethnic disproportionality in special education: case studies of suburban school districts. Teachers College Record, 113, 10, 2233-2266. Artiles, A. J. (1998). The dilemma of difference: enriching the disproportionality discourse with theory and context. Journal of Special Education, 32, 1, 32-36. Baldus, D., Palaski, D., Woodworth, G. (1990). Equal Justice and the Death Penalty. Boston: Northeastern University Press. Benaji, M. (2011). The dark side of the mind. On The Human A Project of the National Humanities Center. Retrieved from Bertrand, M. and arianne and Mullainathan S. (2004) Are Emily And Greg more employable than Lakisha And Jamal? A field experiment on labor market discrimination. American Economic Review, 94(4,Sep), 991-1013. Blair, I. V., Judd, C. M., Chakpleau, K. M. (2004). The Influence of afrocentric facial features in criminal sentencing. American Psychological Society, 15 (10), 674-679. Chideya, F. (1995). Dont believe the type: Fighting cultural misinformation about African-Americans. New York, NY: Plum. Cole, D. (1999). No Equal Justice: Race and class in the American criminal justice system. New York: The New Press. Correll, J., Park, B., Judd, C. (2002). The police officers Dilemma: Using ethnicity to disambiguate potentially threatening individuals. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 83 (6), 1314-1329. Giroux, H. (2010). Rethinking education as the practice of freedom: Paulo Freire and the promise of critical pedagogy.

Retrieved from 27 Greenwald, A., Oakes, M., Hoffman, H. (2003). Targets of discrimination: Effects of race on responses to weapons holders. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 15 (6), 287-291. WORKS CITED Hosp, J. L., & Hosp, M. K. (2001). Behavior differences between African-American and Caucasian students: issues for assessment and intervention. Education and Treatment of Children, 24, 3, 336-50; Kenjufu, J. (2009). Black boys and special education change is needed. Teachers of Color Magazine. Retrieved from Kirkus Reviews (2012). Retrieved from Leonhardt, D. (2007). The new affirmative action. New York Times Magazine, Sept. 30, 2007, Retrieved from _r=3&hp=&oref=slogin&pagewanted=all&oref=slogin Lewin, T. (2012). Black students face more discipline, data suggest. The New York Times, March 6. Retrieved from Lockette, T. (2010). The new racial segregation at public schools . Retrieved from Nittle, N. K. U.S. schools more segregated now than four decades ago. Retrieved from Price, L. (September 17, 2003). Racial discrimination continues to play a part in hiring decisions. Economic Policy Institute. Retrieved from Rojas, P. (1999). Just Facts: Racial Resegregation and Inequality in Public Schools. Retrieved from ml. Rudd, T. (2012). A quick look at standardized testing and stereotype threat. Columbus, Ohio: Kirwan Institute for the Study of Race and Ethnicity. 28 WORKS CITED Skiba, R. J., Michael R. S., Nardo, A. C., (2000). The color of discipline: Sources of racial and gender disproportionality in school punishment. Indiana Education Policy Center. Retrieved from The College Board (2012). The 8th Annual AP report to the nation, February 8. Retrieved from The New York Times (October 2007). Study Finds Disparities in Mortgages by Race. Retrieved from The New York Times (October 2007). Study Finds Disparities in Mortgages by Race. Retrieved from Townsend, B. L. (2000). The disproportionate discipline of African American learners: reducing school suspensions and expulsions. Exceptional Children, 66, 3, 381-91. Retrieved from 29 Critical pedagogy is not concerned with simply offering students new ways to think

critically and act with authority as agents in the classroom; it is also concerned with providing students with the skills and knowledge necessary for them to expand their capacities both to question deepseated assumptions and myths that legitimate the most archaic and disempowering social practices that structure every aspect of society and to then take responsibility for intervening in the world they inhabit. Henry A. Giroux 2010 30

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