Byzantine Becomes the new Rome -

Byzantine Becomes the new Rome -

Byzantine Becomes the new Rome In 330 A.D., Emperor Constantine moved the capital of the Roman Empire from Rome to Byzantium, a Greek city in the eastern part of the empire. He renamed it Constantinople. The city was located along land routes that connected Europe to Asia. The city was also strategically located on the Bosporus, a waterway connecting the Black Sea

to the Mediterranean. Constantinople was surrounded on 3 sides by water, and the 4th city was heavily protected by 14 mile long stone wall that was 25 feet thick and had towers that were 70 feet tall. Portion of Constantinoples walls today A Byzantine Culture Emerges While the western half of the empire collapsed in 476 A.D., the eastern half of the empire survived for another 1 thousand years.

The Byzantines saw themselves as simply continuing the Roman Empire. Like the emperors of Rome, the Byzantine emperors continued to be all-powerful. They maintained an imperial system of government over a diverse population. Because Constantinople was in the East, most of the people spoke Greek instead of Latin although the citizens thought of themselves as Romans. At first the official language of the government remained Latin but it also eventually was replaced by Greek. The Byzantines were also united by their own form of ChristianityEastern Orthodoxy-which was separate from the Catholic Church in Rome. Orthodox Christians did not recognize the Pope as the head of their church. Instead, they had their own Patriarch. There were also other differences, such as views on the Trinity and the shape of

the cross they displayed in their churches. Reasons for the Survival of the Byzantine Empire Classical Cultures: Byzantium benefited from a rich infusion of Greek, Roman, Christian and Middle Eastern cultures. Location: At the crossroads of Europe and Asia, Constantinople was a major center for trade. Silks and spices from the East, furs from Russia, and grains, olives, and wines from the empire itself brought great wealth. Strong Central Government: Byzantium was ruled by a series of powerful emperors with a strong centralized administration and a single set of laws.

Large Army: The Byzantine central government taxed merchants and peasants to support a large standing army. The Byzantines developed a vibrant culture. They built the Church of Hagia Sophia-which means Holy Wisdom in Greek. With its giant dome and tall spires it is considered one of the most beautiful buildings ever built. Citizens could enjoy free entertainment at the Hippodrome which offered the best chariot races in the world! Hagia Sophia today Hippodrome-Past and Present

Emperor Justinian (527-565 A.D.) Schools taught ancient Greek texts. The classics of Greek and Roman literature served as textbooks. They learned geometry from Euclid, history from Herodotus and medicine from Galen. The modern world owes the Byzantine scholars a huge debt for preserving many of the great works of Greece and Rome. Byzantine artists used precious materials-gold, silver, ivory-to display classical images. They were especially known for their colorful icons and mosaics (pictures made with pieces of cut stone and glass). The size of the Byzantine Empire varied over time. In its early centuries, it ruled over the Balkan Peninsula, the Middle East, and parts of Italy. Under Justinian, it reconquered much of the old Roman

Empire. In 533 Justinian sent Belisarius, who is considered by many historians to be the best military genius of all-time to recover north Africa from the Vandals. He got the job done in 2 months. Two years later, he reconquered Rome from the Ostrogoths. Justinians Code The Germans were so impressed with their conqueror that they asked Belisarius to be their king. He refused and continued being loyal to Justinian. He then went on to reconquer Italy and Spain. Justinian now ruled almost all of the territory that the Roman Empire had ever ruled. He could honestly call himself the new

Caesar. One of the greatest achievements of the Byzantine Empire was the Code of Justinian. Emperor Justinian collected all of the existing Roman laws and organized them into a single code. The code listed all the laws and opinions on each subject. Justinians Code also had special laws relating to religion. It required that all persons in the empire belong to the Eastern Orthodox faith. The Code went on to be used by the Byzantines and other civilizations for more than 900 years. Belisarius and Justinian

Decline and Fall of Byzantine Empire After Justinian died the empire began to suffer countless setbacks. There were riots, religious quarrels and foreign dangers. The first crisis was a disease that today we call the bubonic plague. It probably arrived from India on ships infested with rats. In 542 A.D. at its peak, it is estimated that 10,000 people were dying every day. The illness broke out every 10-12 years until it 700 when it finally faded out. By that time, it had destroyed a huge percentage of the population. The smaller population left the empire vulnerable. Byzantines enemies were many. The Germanic tribes pressed from the west and the Sassanid Persian attacked from the east. With Islam on the rise, Arab armies also attacked. Russians attempted invasion

of the city 3 times. The empire declined further in the 11th century. By this time the Turks had taken over the Muslim world and slowly fought their way into Anatolia. The Seljuk Turks, originally from Central Asia, defeated the Byzantine army in 1071 and took possession of most of Asia Minor. Bubonic Plague and its carrier the rat helped bring down The Byzantine Empire Empire Falls The Crusaders brought armies of knights from Western Europe who pillaged Constantinople in 1204 on their way to fight the Turks.

City-states in Italy began to compete with Constantinople for Mediterranean trade. Yet the Byzantines still controlled the Balkan Peninsula and survived for another 400 years. But the empire slowly shrank under the impact of all these attacks. By the 1350s it was reduced to the tip of Anatolia and a strip of the Balkans. Yet thanks to its walls, its fleet and its strategic location, the city held out for another 100 years. In 1453, Constantinople was finally conquered by the Ottoman Turks. One place that was greatly influenced by Byzantium was Russia. Russia emerged as a state in the 9th century, in the forest lands between the Baltic and Black Seas. Viking raiders organized Slavs in the region into a kingdom centered in Kiev. Other cities such as

Moscow and Novgorod, developed in the north. Early Russian cities carried on a brisk trade with the Byzantine Empire. Fall of Constantinople The Byzantine Legacy Contact with the Byzantines affected Russia greatly. Byzantine culture-especially Orthodox Christianity, the Cyrillic alphabet, and Byzantine crafts and products, was introduced into Russian society. The Byzantines also converted other Slavic peoples and the Bulgars to Christianity, leaving a permanent legacy on Eastern Europe. Preserved Ancient Cultures: The Byzantines preserved the rich

cultural tradition of classical Greek and Roman civilization, including Greek philosophy and science and Roman engineering. Copies of ancient texts were saved despite the destruction of the West. Code of Justinian: Emperor Justinian consolidated Roman laws into a single legal code which served as a guide on most legal questions. It greatly influenced later Western legal systems. New form of Christianity: Eastern Orthodox Christianity was led by a Patriarch and the emperor of Constantinople, rather than the Pope in Rome. Western Europe in Turmoil: The Dark Ages The Arts: The Byzantines were renowned for their mosaics, icons,

gold jewelry and silks. Constantinoples cathedral, Hagia Sophia is considered one of the worlds most beautiful buildings. Western Europe in Turmoil: While the Byzantine Empire survived as a center of classical culture, important changes were taking place in the Western World. Historians sometimes refer to this period in history, from the fall of Rome in 476 A.D. to the 1400s as the Middle Ages, the Dark Ages, the Medieval Ages , or the Age of Faith. This is the period between the ancient and modern times. It is referred to as the Dark Ages because without the structure (laws, economy, trade, government, infrastructure ) that Rome provided, Western Europe plummeted into chaos. Learning and education took a back seat to simply trying to survive. Except for the priests,

very few people were literate. City dwellers fled to the countryside to grow their food. Europe became rural again. Dark Ages Beyond Romes frontiers lived Germanic tribes like the Goths, Visigoths, Vandals, Lombards, Franks, Anglos and Saxons. The Romans had always considered these people to be uncivilized barbarians. The Romans considered anyone to be a barbarian who came form a foreign, non-Roman culture. In the 4th century, a war-like tribe known as the Huns moved from central Asia to Europe. As the Huns moved to Europe, they forced

the Germanic tribes to move westward. These Germanic tribes in turn pushed forward into the Roman Empire. As German people began to mix with Roman people, Latin began to change. It was no longer the universal language. Different dialects began to develop. By the 800s French and Spanish, Italian and other Latin-based languages had evolved from Latin. The Visigoths were permitted by the Romans to enter the empire to escape the Huns. Later, the Visigoths turned on the Romans and sacked the city of Rome in 410 A.D. Barbarians Overrun Empire The Visigoths were assisted in defeating the Romans by the many

Germanic slaves inside the city. After a period of invasions, Germanic tribes then established their own kingdoms in many parts of the Roman Empire. The Anglos and the Saxons invaded England; the Visigoths and the Vandals moved to Spain; the Lombards occupied Italy, and the Franks took Gaul (present day France). The constant warfare of this period further disrupted trade across Europe. Travel became unsafe because of violence. Bridges and roads fell into disrepair. Cities and towns were abandoned. Bandits roamed freely. Life became increasingly rural and unsafe. Wealthy families moved out of towns to the safety of fortified homes in the countryside. People gave up their interest in learning. Shortages of

food and goods grew. Churches and monasteries became the only places where people could read and write. Dark Ages: Rome Nearly Abandoned The Rise of the Franks After 476 A.D., small Germanic kingdom replaced the Roman Empire. The Catholic Church which survived the fall of Rome, provided a measure of order and security. In the Roman province of Gaul, a Germanic people who called themselves the Franks established the largest of the new kingdoms

in what is now France. Charles Martel (Charles The Hammer), a powerful nobleman, helped unite the Franks. In 732, at the Battle of Tours, Martel stopped the advance of Islam from Spain into France. This battle hold extreme importance in the history of Europe. Had the Muslim won, Europe might have become part of the Muslim Empire. In 751, his son Pepin seized power and became King of the Franks. On behalf of the Church and with the support of the Pope, Pepin marched across the Alps and took control of northern Italy by defeating the Lombards (who had not converted to Christianity yet), who were threatening Rome.

Charles Martel Carolingian Dynasty In exchange, the Pope anointed Pepin King by the grace of God. Thus began the reign of the Frankish rulers called the Carolingian Dynasty. Frankish kings created a powerful army by granting lands to their nobles in exchange for service in the kings army with their knights. Pepins son, Charles the Great Charlemagne, became king in 768. Charlemagne expanded the practice of giving lands to his nobles in exchange for the promise of loyalty and service. At the same, time,

his nobles gave land to their knights in exchange for the same promise. Peasants have up their rights to their local lords for security. They offered services in king, providing firewood, livestock and crops. Charlemagne soon embarked on a campaign of conquest. He enlarged his kingdom to include France, Germany, Holland, Belgium and northern Italy. He built an empire greater than any since ancient Rome. The Reign of Charlemagne He reunited the Roman Empire for the first time since Justinian and

spread Christianity. By 800 the Carolingian Empire was larger than the Byzantine Empire. Charlemagne had become the most powerful king in Europe. Charlemagne established a new capital at Aachen, which he turned into a center of learning. He constructed a beautiful palace in imitation of the imperial court of Rome. He used riches form his conquests to attract scholars to his palace school for children of the nobility. At the request of the Pope Leo III, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. This step announced to the world that Western Europe was now independent from the Byzantine Emperor (who also claimed to be the Roman Emperor). The

coronation was also historic because the Pope had claimed the political right to confer the title Roman Emperor on a European king. This event signaled the joining of Germanic power, the Catholic Church and the heritage of the Roman Empire. Charlemagne The coronation of Charlemagne signified the new political and religious unity of Western Europe

under the concept of Christendom. After Charlemagnes death, his empire was divided among his sons. Europe Faces New Threats The division of Charlemagnes empire occurred just as Europeans were facing new threats. From the east, Slavs and Magyars invaded the lands of Germany, France, and Italy. From North Africa, Muslims attacked southern Italy. The greatest threat came from the Vikingsfierce warriors and sailors from Scandinavia in Northern Europe. The

sailed south in search of trade, loot and land. The Vikings ventured all the way to Constantinople and Russia. A Viking explorer named Leif Erickson reached North America almost 500 years before Columbus did! Between 800 and 1000, the Vikings launched repeated assaults on the coasts of Western Europe, often committing brutal atrocities. Although spreading fear and destruction, the Vikings also created new trade routes. Their longboats were easy to maneuver and could sail in heavy seas or close to the land. In many places, they created new settlements-such as the Danelaw in England, Normandy in France, and their own communities on the island of Sicily.

Vikings and their ships Feudalism 800-1400 To protect themselves from violence and to provide for basic economic needs, people throughout Western Europe adopted a system introduced by the Franks. Kings offered nobles a grand of land known as a feud or fief, in exchange for loyalty and service. The nobleman, known as the vassal, gave homage (allegiance) to the king. This new order, known as feudalism, helped people survive the breakdown of central government and order. Feudalism in Europe was characterized by a number of key social, political and economic relationships.

Social: A major characteristic of feudal society was the development of a strict class structure based on the control of land and military power. People born as serfs, knights, or lords could not change their social position. Local lords (nobles) were given land by their rulers in exchange for military service. These lords had their own small armies of knights-armed warriors on horseback. Feudalism Political: Under the feudal system, the leading nobles controlled political life. They built large castles for their own protection, often rivaling those of the king in size. They surrounded themselves with armed knights. The king relied on his nobles for his own army, and the nobles often fought

among themselves or challenged the kings authority. Civil wars were frequent, and powerful nobles often grabbed land for themselves. Economic: During the feudal era, most people lived on manors. A manor consisted of the lords house and the peasants living in the surrounding territory. This aspect of the feudal system is also sometimes called manorialism. Each manor produced its own food, clothing, and shelter. Manors varied in size, depending on their lords wealth. Every noble had at least one manor, but some powerful and wealthy nobles had many manors. In England, there were more than 9,000 manors. Peasant farmers known as serfs gave their lord part o their harvest in return for the use of the land and other services. The lord protected the serfs from attacks by outsiders. Each lord could pass laws, require labor and act as

judge. Feudal Manor Serf Life Serfs were not slaves but they were bound to the land (they could never leave) and had no voice in most matters. Serfs lived in small cottages with 1 or 2 rooms with walls of dried mud, plastered branches and straws. There were few furnishings, such as a table, stool and chairs. Stacks of straw served as beds for the entire family. Ventilation was very poor. Water was drawn from a nearby well or stream. They warmed their dirt-floor houses by bringing in pigs and

dogs inside at night in the winter. A serfs simple diet consisted of vegetables, bread, cheese and soup. Meat was eaten maybe twice a year. Despite the hardships they endured, serfs accepted their lot in life. Peasant farmers produced the food used by medieval society. Most worked long hours to grow enough food to survive each year. Although most peasants were farmers, some were millers, tanners or blacksmiths. Church feasts marked sowing and reaping days. A Serfs Faming in the Middle Ages: Farmers lacked specific knowledge of how to

enrich the soil or rotate crops. Each year, only two-thirds of the land was usually cultivated, letting the other third remain fallow (uncultivated), so that it could recover its fertility. This was known as the three-field system. One field was devoted to the winter crops, a second to the summer crops, and a third lay fallow each year. Bad weather and poor harvest could lead to famine or death. During the Great Famine of 1315 to 1322 an

estimated 75 million people died!!! The Age of Chivalry Nobles constantly fought one another and kept Europe fragmented. Lords and their armies lived in a violent society that favored combat skills. By the 1100s a code of behavior arose. Mounted soldiers became valuable in combat during the reign of Charlemagnes grandfather, Charles Martel. He organized Frankish troops of armored horsemen or knights. The knights were the most important part of the army. The knights were expected to display courage in battle and loyalty to their lord. This code of behavior demanded that the knight fight bravely in defense of 3 masters: He

devoted himself to his earthly feudal lord, his Heavenly lord, and his chosen lady. He also protected the weak and the poor. The ideal knight was loyal, brave and courteous. Most knights failed to meet these high standards. They usually treated the peasants brutally. During the Middle Ages, the role of women was determined by the attitudes of the Catholic Church and the nobility. Medieval Knight Women in the Middle Ages Women were supposed to be obedient to men. Womens inferior

status was often blamed on the Biblical story of Eves disobedience in the Garden of Eden. Medieval people lived in extended families. Nobles maintained large households; related peasants lived close to one another. Women of all social classes gave birth to a large number of children, but many children died in infancy. Womens life-styles varied according to their social status. Noble women spent most of their time in prayer and domestic chores such as sewing and embroidery. Among the nobility, only a handful received an education. Among the peasants, a close partnership often existed between the husband and the wife. Both worked side by side in the fields. Women ran the home and

looked after the livestock. The Age of Faith Amid the weak central governments of Europe, the Catholic Church emerged as the most powerful institution. In crowning Charlemagne emperor in 800, the Church sought to influence both spiritual and political matters. There were many reasons for the Church being the single most powerful organization in Western Europe: The Role of Faith: People were very religious. They believed the Church represented God and held the power to send a person to Heaven or Hell. Most felt united by their common faith. Share

beliefs in the teachings of the Church bonded people together. During an era of constant warfare and turmoil, the Church was a stable force. Religious holidays, especially Christmas and Easter were occasions for social gatherings and festive celebrations. Power and Wealth: Many nobles left land to the Church when they died, hoping to gain entry into Heaven. The Church became Europes largest landowner. Church wealth also increased through tithes. Church Law Canon Law: All Medieval Christians, kings and peasants were subject to canon law, the law of the Church. The Church established courts

to try people accused of violating Church law. Two of the harshest punishments they faced were the interdict and excommunication. Popes used excommunication-banishment from the Church to wield power over political rulers. This meant that an excommunicated person could be denied salvation. If the king was excommunicated, all the kings vassals were free of their duty to him. If the excommunicated king continued to disobey the Pope, the Pope could use an even more frightening weapon-the interdict. Under the interdict, many sacraments could not be performed in the kings lands. The kings subjects believed that without the sacraments, they were doomed to eternal suffering in hell. Centers of Learning: The Church was the main center of learning.

Church officials were usually the only people who could read and write. Rulers relied on Church officials, since they were the most educated people. The Pope The head of the Catholic Church was the Pope in Rome. The Pope was regarded as the successor of St. Peter, leader of the apostles after the death of Jesus. Catholics believed the Pope had inherited the role of Peter in running the Church.

The Pope governed the Church with the help of cardinals, bishops, and priests. The Church controlled owned enormous amounts of land in Europe. The Church also possessed monasteries, abbeys, and convents, where monks and nuns spent their lives devoted to prayer. Two Christian Thinkers Two Christian thinkers who had a great influence on the Middle Ages

were St. Augustine and Thomas Aquinas. St. Augustine (354-430) lived at the time of the fall of Rome. In The City of God, Augustine asks why God is letting barbarians destroy the Christian civilization of Rome. He concludes that no early city, like Rome, can last forever. Only the City of God in Heaven is eternal. Because our understanding is limited, he said we must put our faith in God, who will reward us in the afterlife. St. Thomas Aquinas (1225-1274) lived 800 years after St. Augustine. His most famous book, Summa Theologica, provided a summary of Christian beliefs. Aquinas wrote at a time when Muslim and Jewish scholars had just discovered the lost works by Aristotle. Some Christian scholars felt such pre-Christian thinkers had no value. Aquinas showed hose these works by Aristotle were compatible with Christian teachings.

Aquinas said that God had given man the power of reason to help him explain the world. Therefore, we should trust reason as well as faith. Aquinas also believed in the existence of natural law. St. Augustine and St. Thomas Aquinas Natural Law & Middle Age Battles Natural law-universal laws independent of any laws passed by governments. These laws are based on reason. Our reason tells us what we must do in order to do good and to avoid evil. Aquinas believed that we can use our understanding of natural law to evaluate the laws of governments. If a human law conflicts with

natural law, it not a law and we do not have to obey it. Laws of this kind are acts of violence rather than laws. Aquinas believed that citizens even have the right to remove rulers who continually enact unjust laws. Although Aquinas thought a rulers power came from God, he felt this power came from God through the people. Battles of the Medieval Ages were brutal. By the 1100s stone castles were encircled by massive walls and guard towers. The castle was the home of the lord and lady, knights, and servants. It was also a fortress, designed for defense. A castle under siege was a gory sight. Defenders poured boiling oil and molten lead on their enemies. Archers fired deadly bolts with their crossbows.

Medieval Age Siege Weapons Siege Tower and Battering Ram Medieval Castle under Siege The Crusades The power and influence of the Catholic Church in the Middle Ages can be seen in its ability to carry out a holy war against Muslims. The Age of Faith also inspired war and conquest. For hundreds of years, Christian pilgrims had regularly visited

Jerusalem, where the sacred events depicted in the Bible were believed to have taken place, including the death and resurrection of Jesus. However in the 11th century, the Seljuk Turks took control of the Holy Land from the Byzantine Empire and drove out Christian pilgrims. In 1093 Byzantine Emperor Alexius asked for help against the Muslim Turks. Shocked and angered at the possibility of Constantinople falling to the Muslims, Pope Urban II responded. He issued a call to all Christians in Europe for what he termed a holy war, a crusade to regain control of the Holy Land. He stated Deo le vult which means God wills it in French. The Church promised salvation to all who participated. The word Crusade meant war of the cross.

Crusaders The Call to Free the Holy Land Crusaders fought under the banner of a red cross against a white background. The Crusades brought rulers and nobles from different parts of Europe together for a common cause. Many peasants and knights alike joined the cause because they truly had faith and wanted to restore a Christian kingdom in Jerusalem. Others went in search of fortune; younger sons went to improve their status since they stood to inherit little or no property. Kings saw this as an opportunity to get rid of quarrelsome knights who

constantly fought each other. Hundreds of thousands of Crusaders fought a series of wars over the next 2 centuries. Although the Crusades never achieved more than temporary control of Jerusalem, the Crusades had many important effects: New Ideas and Products: Europeans had greater exposure to new ideas, such as the use of zero in mathematics, and to foreign products, such as silk, rice, spices, coffee, perfumes and cotton cloth. The Later Middle Ages Increased Trade: The European demand for foreign products, like spices, sugar, lemons and rugs eventually led to increased trade with

the Middle East as well as with other parts of the world. Growth of Intolerance: The Crusades led to the Christian persecution of Jews and Muslims, as well as to Muslim persecution of Christians. During the Middle Ages, Europe underwent gradual changes. Trade first revived when merchants displayed their goods at fairs. Trade slowly increased and cities grew along trade routes. The Crusades increased interest in luxury goods from the East. A new merchant class arose in towns. Merchants and craftsmen organized into powerful associations known as guilds. New invention like better watermills, windmills, and clocks, improved life. Cities like Bologna and Paris founded the first universities.

Gothic Cathedrals Throughout the Middle Ages, important towns had often competed t build the largest church or cathedral. The later Middle Ages saw the introduction of a new art style, Gothic, which replaced the Romanesque style. The first Gothic church was built in France in 1231. Its pointed,

high spires, and beautiful stained glass windows were designed to give worshippers the feeling that they were being transported to another world. Chartres Cathedral on the right. Notre Dame Cathedral Gothic cathedrals thrust upward towards heaven. Light streamed in through huge stained-glass

windows. In Paris, the Cathedral of Notre Dame displays this type of architecture. It was built between 11631345. The Cathedral represents the city of God. It was temporarily closed in April 2019 due to a fire that heavily damaged it. English Political Traditions

In the Middle Ages, England developed traditions of liberty and limited self-government that were unique to Europe. Magna Carta: in 1215, the English Nobles rebelled against the taxes and forced loans to be collected by King John. They were helped by the Church and towns. John was forced to sign an agreement promising not to take away any free mans property or to imprison any free man without following procedures established by the laws of the land. The Magna Carta guaranteed all free men the right to a trial by jury, and further forced the king to obtain a council of nobles for most new taxes. Parliament: Later English kings summoned nobles and representatives of the towns to grant then new taxes. This led to the

origins of Parliament.

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