C H A P T E R 1 4 Two Societies at War 1861-1865

C H A P T E R 1 4 Two Societies at War 1861-1865

CHAPTERS 20&21 The Civil War American Pageant The Menace of Secession March 4, 1861: Abraham Lincoln was inaugurated in his inaugural address, said that there would be no conflict unless the South provoked it Restoration of the union=his top goal split U.S. brought up questions

about the sharing of the national debt & the allocation of federal Choosing Sides The Civil War: Southern name: War between the States Northern name: the War of Rebellion December 20, 1860: South Carolina convention voted unanimously to secede from the Union

fire-eaters elsewhere in the Fire-eaters (definition) Southern politicians who sought secession. They organized secession conventions in several southern states in 1850 but backed away because of a lack of support and the promise of moderate southern backing for secession if Congress tried to outlaw slavery in the future.

Choosing Sides Secessionists met in Montgomery, Alabama: When? February 1861 What did they do? Proclaimed a new nationthe Confederate States of America Named Jefferson Davis as president Choosing Sides Upper Southern slave states:

Secessionist fever was less intense Their leaders proposed federal guarantees for slavery in states where it existed Upper South = Virginia, Delaware, Maryland, North Carolina, Kentucky, Tennessee, Missouri & Arkansas Choosing Sides In December 1860 President James Buchanan

declared secession illegal Also said that the federal govt lacked the authority to restore the Union by force Choosing Sides South Carolina: Demanded the surrender of Fort Sumter federal garrison in Charleston Harbor Viewed Buchanans message as recognition of its independence Buchanan sends unarmed merchant

ship to resupply the fort South Carolinans fired on the ship Buchanan backs down The Bombard ment of Fort Sumter, 1861 (p. 400) Currier and Ives, a New York publishing house, brought colorful art into thousands of middle-class homes by

printing inexpensive lithographs of pastoral scenes and dramatic historical events. This fairly realistic depiction of the Confederate bombardment of Fort Sumter in Charleston harbor in April 1861 was especially popular in Choosing Sides Jefferson Davis forced the surrender of Fort Sumter on April 14, 1861 Lincoln called in state militiamen to put down the insurrection. Virginia, Arkansas, Tennessee, & North Carolina joined the

Confederacy after the fall of Fort Sumter Brothers Blood and Border Blood remaining Border States (Missouri, Kentucky, Maryland) = crucial for both sides would have almost 2X the manufacturing capacity of the South & increased its supply of horses & mules by half. called border states because they are on the North-South border they are slave-states. They have not

seceded, but at any moment, they just might. Brothers Blood and Border Blood Retaining the border states: Lincoln used moral persuasionand methods of dubious legality: Maryland: declared martial law in order to retain a state that would isolate Washington D.C. within Confederate territory if it went to the South

sent troops to western Virginia & Map 14.1 The Process of Secession, 18601861 (p. 399) The states with the highest concentration of slaves (see Table 14.1) led the secessionist movement. After the attack on Fort Sumter, the states of the upper South joined the Confederacy. Yeomen farmers in Tennessee and the back country of Alabama, Georgia, and Virginia

opposed secession but, except in the futures state of West Virginia, initially rallied to the confederate cause. Consequently, the South entered the Civil War with a white population generally opposed to the policies of Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies Jefferson Daviss focus: Defense of the Confederacy rather than conquering western territories; (the Confederacy only needed a military stalemate to guarantee independence)

Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies Lincoln: Portrayed secession as an attack on popular government Insisted on a policy of unconditional surrender. Dethroning King Cotton South was depending on foreign intervention to win the war--didnt get it.

European countries wanted the Union to be split strengthen their nation people were pro-North & antislavery, effect of Uncle Toms Cabin Dethroning King Cotton Southern believed that the war would produce a shortage of cotton, which would draw England and others into the war, right? Wrong. pre-war years, cotton

production had been immense, and England and France had huge surpluses of cotton. Dethroning King Cotton As the North won Southern territory, it sent cotton and food over to Europe. India & Egypt upped their cotton production to offset the hike in the price of cotton. King Wheat and King Corn (of the North) beat King Cotton of the South Europe needed the food much more

than it needed the cotton. Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies On July 21, 1861: General Irwin McDowells troops were routed by P. G. T. Beauregards Confederate troops in the Battle of Bull Run Lincoln: Replaced McDowell with George B. McClellan Signed bills for the enlistment of men

Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies In 1862: McClellan launched a thrust toward Richmond, Virginia (the Confederate capital) He moved too slowly Allowed the Confederates to mount a counterattack. President Davis Versus President Lincoln

Souths problem gave states the ability to secede in the future getting Southern states to send troops to help other states was always difficult to do. By definition in a confederacy, national power was weak. Jefferson Davis was never really popular President Davis Versus President Lincoln Lincoln

benefit of leading an established government grew patient & relaxed as the war dragged on. Limitations on Wartime Liberties Lincolns tyranny: illegally proclaiming a blockade, proclaiming acts without Congressional consent sending in troops to the Border States

justified his actions: said that such acts werent permanent, and that he had to do those things in order to preserve the Limitations on Wartime Liberties the advancement of $2 million to three private citizens for war purposes the suspension of habeas corpus so that anti-Unionists could be arrested without a formal charge

The intimidation of voters in the Border States. Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies In 1862: Washington was threatened when a Confederate army under Stonewall Jackson marched north up the Shenandoah Valley in western Virginia Jackson won a series of small engagements, tying down the

larger Union forces Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies General Robert E. Lee: Launched an attack outside Richmond & suffered heavy casualties McClellan failed to exploit the advantage, & Richmond remained secure. Setting Objectives & Devising

Strategies Jackson & Lee: Routed a Union army in the Second Battle of Bull Run in August 1862 The battle at Antietam Creek on September 17, 1862: The bloodiest single day in U.S. military history Jacksons troops arrived just in Fields of Death (p. 396) Fought with mass

armies and new weapons the Civil War took a huge toll in human lives, as evidenced by grisly photos like this one of a battlefield at Antietam, Maryland. At Shiloh, Tennessee, Gen. Grant surveyed a field so covered with dead that it would have been possible to walkin any

direction, stepping on dead bodies, without a Lincoln Visits the Army of the Potomac, 1862 (p. 405) Following the battle of Antietam, President Lincoln journeyed to the headquarters of General McClellan. Supported by his military advisors (standing to his rear), the towering commander in chief vigorously urged his principal general to exploit the opportunity offered by Lees heavy casualties and launch an all-out attack against Richmond. When McClellan did not undertake

this offensive, Lincoln removed him as commander of the Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies Lincoln Replaced General McClellan with Ambrose Burnside, who later resigned & was replaced by Joseph (Fighting Joe) Hooker The Union dominated the Ohio River Valley, & in 1862: General Ulysses S. Grant took Fort Henry on the Tennessee River

Fort Donelson on the Cumberland Map 14.2 The Eastern Campaigns of 1862 (p. 404) Many of the great battles of the Civil War took place in the 125 miles between the Union capital of Washington & the Confederate capital of Richmond. During the

Confederate Generals Robert J. Stonewall Jackson & Robert E. Lee secured victories that were almost decisive; they also suffered a defeatat Antietam, in Marylandthat was almost fatal. As was often the case in the Civil War, the victors in these battles were

either too bloodied or Setting Objectives & Devising Strategies In April 1862: Confederate army caught Grant by surprise near Shiloh Grant forced a Confederate withdrawal but suffered lots of casualties Union naval forces captured New Orleans, undermining Confederate strength in the Mississippi Valley

Mobilizing Armies & Civilians After the defeat at Shiloh in April 1862, the Confederate Congress imposed the first legally binding draft in American history The Confederate draft had two loopholes: It exempted one white man for each twenty slaves on a plantation It allowed drafted men to hire

Mobilizing Armies & Civilians Some Southerners refused to serve: Confederate government lacked the power to compel them Confederate Congress overrode state judges orders to free conscripted men Dixie Dan Emmit was working for Dan Bryant's Minstrels in New York when he

wrote this "hooray song." When the Civil War began, "Dixie," written by a Northerner, became the unofficial national anthem of the Confederate South. After the surrender of General Lee in 1865, President Lincoln had "Dixie" played by the band in Washington, saying, "We have captured the Confederate Army; we have also captured the Confederate tune, and Dixie I wish I was in the land of cotton,

Old times there are not forgotten; Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land. In Dixie Land where I was born in, Early on one frosty morning, Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land. I wish I was in Dixie, Hooray! Hooray! In Dixie Land, I'll take my stand, To live and die in Dixie, Away, Away, Away down south in Dixie, Away, Away,

Away down south in Dixie. Old missus marry "Will de weaber," Willium was a gay deceaber; Look away! Look away! Look away way! Dixie Land But when he put his arm around'er, He smiled as fierce as a forty-pound'er. Look away! Look away! Look away! Dixie Land Den I wish I was in Dixie, Hooray! Hooray! In Dixie Land, I'll take my stand,

To lib and die in Dixie, Away, Away Away down south in Dixie, Away, Away, Away down south in Dixie. His face was sharp as a butchers cleaber, But dat did not seem to greab'er; Look away! Look away! Look away way! Dixie Land Ole missus acted de foolish part, And died for a man dat broke her heart, Look away! Look away!

Look away way! Dixie Land Mobilizing Armies & Civilians To prevent sabotage & concerted resistance to the war effort in the Union Lincoln suspended habeas corpus (the constitutional right that protects citizens against arbitrary arrest and detention) Imprisoned about 15,000 Confederate sympathizers without trial He also extended martial law to

civilians who discouraged enlistment or resisted the draft Mobilizing Armies & Civilians The Union governments Militia Act of 1862 Set a quota of volunteers for each state Enrollment Act of 1863: Increased the quotas Northerners, too, could hire replacements or pay a $300

commutation (exemption fee) Mobilizing Armies & Civilians Hostility to the draft & to African Americans spilled into the streets of New York City in the form of a series of riots Irish & German workers sacked the homes of Republicans Rioters lynched and mutilated a dozen African Americans Forced hundreds of black families

from their homes Draft Riots and Anti-Black Violence in New York City (p. 408) The Enrollment Act of 1863 enraged many workers and recent Irish and German immigrants who did not want to go to war. In July in NYC they took out their anger on free blacks in a week-long series of riots. This engraving depicts the burning by a mob of the Colored

Orphan Asylum on 5th Avenue, home to 200 African American children. All of the children escaped before the mob set fire to the building; the fire spread to adjoining structures, forcing residents to flee with whatever possessions they could carry. Mobilizing Armies & Civilians Lincoln rushed in Union troops fresh from the battle of

Gettysburg, who killed more than hundred rioters and suppressed the insurrection. Mobilizing Armies & Civilians The Union Army Medical Bureau & the United States Sanitary Commission: Provided medical services to the soldiers Tried to prevent deaths from disease, which killed more men than did the fighting.

The Confederate health system was poorly organized, & soldiers died from Mobilizing Armies & Civilians Women took a leading role in the Sanitary Commission & other wartime agencies Dorothea Dix = 1st woman to receive a major federal appointment (superintendent of female nurses) Women staffed growing bureaucracies, volunteered to serve as nurses, & filled positions traditionally held by men.

A number of women took on military duties as spies, scouts, & (disguised as men) soldiers Hospital Nursing (p.408) Working as nurses in battlefront hospitals 1000s of Union & Confederate women gained firsthand experience of the horrors of war. A sense of calm prevails in this behind-thelines Union hospital in Nashville, Tennessee, as

nurse Anne Belle tends to the needs of soldiers recovering from their wounds. Most Civil War nurses served as unpaid volunteers and spent time cooking and cleaning for Mobilizing Resources The Union entered the war with a distinct advantage Its economy was far superior to the Souths

Its arms factories were equipped for mass production Mobilizing Resources The Confederates had substantial industrial capacity By 1863 able to provide every infantryman w/ a modern riflemusket Confederate leaders counted on King Cotton to provide revenue to purchase clothes, boots, blankets, & weapons from abroad

Mobilizing Resources To sustain the allegiance of Northerners to their party while bolstering the Unions ability to fight the war, the Republicans: Raised tariffs Created a national banking system Devised a system of internal improvements, especially railroads; & developed the Homestead Act of Mobilizing Resources

Homestead Act of 1862 Gave heads of families or individuals 21 or older the title to 160 acres of public land after 5 years of residence & improvement Mobilizing Resources The Confederate governments economic policy was less coherent. The Davis administration Built & operated shipyards, armories, foundries, & textile

mills Commandeered food & raw materials Requisitioned slaves to work on Mobilizing Resources The Union government created a modern nation-state that raised revenue for the war by Imposing broad-based taxes (paid for about 20 % of the cost of the war) Increased tariffs on consumer goods Imposed direct taxes on business

corporations, large inheritances and incomes Borrowing from the middle classes Creating a national monetary system Mobilizing Resources National Banking Acts of 1863 & 1864 Forced state banks to accept national charters This required them to purchase treasury bonds That helped finance the war

Mobilizing Resources Legal Tender Act of 1862 Authorized the issue of $150 million in treasury notes (greenbacks) Definition: first issued by the Union during the Civil War to finance the war effort, greenbacks became a general term to describe any paper currency issued by the federal government as legal tender. The value of greenbacks is supported by the good faith of the government rather than specie.

Mobilizing Resources Unlike the continentals issued during the Revolution, the greenbacks did not depreciate disastrously in value. The greenbacks funded 15% of the war Mobilizing Resources The Confederacy lacked a central government It financed about 60 percent of

its expenses with unbacked paper money, which created inflation Citizens property rights were violated in order to sustain the war Aura Lea This popular sentimental ballad is from the Civil War era. It was interpolated in the motion pictures: Come and Get It (Goldwyn, 1936), The Last Musketeer ( Republic, 1952), and The Long Grey

Line (Columbia, 1955). The tune is a fairly recent example of melody snatching -- it was set with new lyrics by Elvis Presley and Vera Matson in the popular love ballad "Love Me Tender," 1956. Aura Lea When the Blackbird in the Spring, On the willow-tree Sat and rock'd, I heard him sing, Singing Aura Lea. Aura Lea, Aura Lea,

Maid of golden hair; Sunshine came along with thee, And swallows in the air. Emancipation War casualties mounted in 1862 Lincoln & some Republican leaders accepted Frederick Douglasss argument & began to redefine the war as a struggle against slavery Exploiting the disorder of wartime, tens of thousands of slaves escaped & sought refuge behind Union lines,

where they were known as contrabands. Emancipation Congress passed the First Confiscation Act in 1861: Authorized the seizure of all property including slaves used to support the rebellion April 1862: Congress enacted legislation ending slavery in the District of Columbia (with compensation for owners)

Emancipation June 1862: Congress enacted the Wilmot Proviso (banning slavery in the territories) July 1862, the Second Confiscation Act declared forever free all fugitive slaves & all slaves captured by the Union army Lincolns Emancipation Proclamation of January 1, 1863, changed the nature of John Browns Body

The melody was a popular Southern camp-meeting tune called "Say, Brothers, Will You Meet Us?" It seems to be uncertain whether the composer is Charles Hall or William Steffe. In the 21st Massachusetts Regiment was a Scottish sergeant named John Brown. Because he had the same name as the abolitionist who was captured and hanged for his insurrection at Harper's Ferry, members of Brown's battalion made up lyrics to tease him. "John Brown's Body" became a favorite marching song. As the song became popular among the soldiers, the lyrics gradually changed to reflect the story of John Brown at Harper's Ferry. The same tune was

later used for Julia Ward Howe's poem "The Battle Hymn of the Republic." John Brown died ' That the slave ' might be free, John Brown died ' That the slave ' might be free, John Brown died ' That the slave ' might be free, But his soul's marching on.

John Browns Body Till she trembled through John Brown's body and through. They hung him for a traitor, Lies a mould'ring in the grave, Themselves the traitor crew, John Brown's body But his soul's marching on. Lies a mould'ring in the grave, John Brown's body

Glory, glory Hallelujah, Lies a mould'ring in the grave, Glory, glory Hallelujah, But his soul's marching on. Glory, glory Hallelujah, Glory, glory Hallelujah, Glory, glory Hallelujah, His soul's marching on. Glory, glory Hallelujah, His soul's marching on. John Brown died '

That the slave ' might be free, John Brown died ' He captured Harpers Ferry That the slave ' might be With his nineteen men so true,free, John Brown died ' And he frightened old Virginia That the slave ' might be Glory, glory Hallelujah, Glory, glory Hallelujah, Glory, glory Hallelujah, His soul's marching on.

Now has ' come The ' glorious jubilee, Now has ' come The ' glorious jubilee, Now has ' come The ' glorious jubilee, When all mankind are free. Glory, glory Hallelujah, Glory, glory Hallelujah, Emancipation Emancipation Proclamation: Frees only those slaves in rebel

states Why? To keep the border slave states that were loyal to the union on his side First Reading of the Emancipation Proclamation, by Francis Bicknell Carpenter (p. 414) Emancipation To reassure Northerners who sympathized with the South or

feared race warfare Lincoln urged slaves to abstain from all violence Vicksburg & Gettysburg Vicksburg, Mississippi, surrendered to the Union army on July 4, 1863, followed by Port Hudson, Louisiana, five days later Importance of this battle? Grant had cut off Louisiana, Arkansas, & Texas from the rest of the Confederacy (he split the

Confederacy in 2) hundreds of slaves deserted their plantations Vicksburg & Gettysburg The battle at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, was a great Union victory & the most lethal battle of the Civil War After Union victories at Gettysburg & Vicksburg, Republicans reaped political gains in their elections, while Confederate elections went

sharply against politicians who supported Davis Vicksburg & Gettysburg The Confederates defeats at Vicksburg & Gettysburg ended their prospect of winning foreign recognition & acquiring advanced weapons from the British. British manufacturers were no longer dependent on the South for cotton However, they were dependent on the North for cheap wheat. The British championed the abolitionist

cause Wanted to avoid provoking a well-armed United States Soldiers & Strategy Lincoln initially refused to consider blacks for military service By 1862, some African Americans had formed their own regiments in South Carolina, Louisiana, & Kansas The Emancipation Proclamation changed popular thinking & military policy Some northern whites argued that if

blacks were to benefit from a Union victory, they should share in the Soldiers & Strategy White resistance to conscription increased Lincoln administration recruits as many African Americans as it could Military service did not end racial discrimination, yet African Americans volunteered for Union military service in disproportionate numbers Lincoln put Ulysses S. Grant in charge of all Union armies

Directed him to advance against all major Confederate forces simultaneously Wanted a decisive victory before the election Soldiers & Strategy Grant knew how to fight a modern war: Relying on technology & directed at an entire society. He was willing to terrorize the civilian population in order to crush the Souths will to resist Soldiers & Strategy

Grant was narrowly victorious in the battles of the Wilderness & Spotsylvania Court House At Cold Harbor, Grant eroded Lees forces, yet the Union losses were even greater Soldiers & Strategy Union & Confederate soldiers suffered through protracted trench warfare around Richmond & Petersburg Enormous casualties & military stalemate threatened Lincoln with defeat in the November

1864 election To punish farmers who provided a base for Jubal Early & food for Lees army: Grant ordered General Philip H. Sheridan to turn the region into a barren waste. Grants decision to carry the war to Confederate civilians changed the definition of conventional The Election of 1864 & Shermans March to the Sea In June 1864 the Republican convention: Endorsed Lincolns war measures Demanded the surrender of the

Confederacy Called for a constitutional amendment to abolish slavery The Republican Party temporarily renamed itself the National Union Party & nominated Democrat Andrew Johnson for Shermans March to the Sea The Democratic convention nominated General George McClellan Promised to recommend an immediate armistice & peace convention if elected.

On September 2, 1864,William T. Sherman forced the surrender of Atlanta, Georgia; Shermans success gave Lincoln a victory in November The pace of emancipation accelerated Maryland & Missouri freed their slaves, followed by Tennessee, Arkansas, & Louisiana Shermans March to the Sea On January 31, 1865

The Republican-dominated Congress approved the Thirteenth Amendment, which prohibited slavery throughout the United States Sherman declined to follow the Confederate army into Tennessee after the capture of Atlanta Instead he wanted to cut a swath through sea that would devastate Georgia & score a psychological victory Shermans March to the Sea

After burning Atlanta, Sherman destroyed railroads, property, & supplies during his march to the sea Many Confederate soldiers deserted & fled home to protect their farms & families In February 1865: Sherman invaded South Carolina with a desire to wreak vengeance upon the The Election of 1864 & Shermans March to the Sea Due to class resentment from poor whites, the

Confederacy had such a manpower shortage that they were going to arm the slaves in exchange for their freedom; the war ended before this had a chance to transpire The symbolic end to the war occurred on April 9, 1865, when Lee surrendered to Grant at Appomattox Court House, Virginia; by May the Confederate army & government had dissolved The Union armies had destroyed slavery as well as the Confederacy & much of the Souths economy. Almost 260,000 Confederate soldiers paid for secession with their lives

The Martyrdom of Lincoln April 14, 1865: Lincoln was shot by John Wilkes Booth and died shortly after. Before his death, few people had suspected his greatness death erased his shortcomings and made people remember him for his good things. The Martyrdom of Lincoln

South cheered Lincolns his death proved to be worse than if he had lived would have almost certainly treated the South much better than they were actually treated during Reconstruction. The Aftermath of the Nightmare. Civil War cost: 600,000 men $15 billion

Gave America a supreme test of its existence U.S. survived, proving its strength & further increasing its growing power & reputation slavery was also eradicated. The Aftermath of the Nightmare. war paved the way for USs fulfillment of its destiny as the dominant republic of the Western Hemisphereand later, the world.

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