Venules, small and large veins Capillaries thinnest blood vessel; used in exchange, is the functional unit of circulatory system (Microcirculation) AV shunts, metarterioles, precapillary sphincters, and
capillary bed Capillary Capillary Types Tight Capillary
Fenestrated Capillary Sinusoidal Capillary Capillary Bed Forces Affecting Bulk Flow across the Capillary Wall
Artery vs. Vein Arteries are known as resistance vessels, especially the arterioles Arteries withstand the greatest BP
Veins are capacitance vessels, they are able to change the diameter to hold more or less blood Pressure Changes down CV tree Small
changes in arteriolar diameter produce big changes in resistance; termed total peripheral
TPR (total peripheral resistance) TPR is the opposition to blood flow through the vessel (caused by friction) Arteries with their smaller lumen resist blood flow Arteriolar diameter contribute the most to TPR Arteriolar compliance (the ability of the vessel to distend) controls the TPR Sympathetic innervation controls arteriolar radius
The viscosity of the blood also affects resistance Small changes in Arteriole Diameter create large changes in BP Blood Flow Velocity in Vascular Tree
Blood Flow Regulation is mainly a Local Response Understand Reactive Hyperemia and Inflammation; ANS control modifies BF based on whole body needs ANS Control of Arterioles
(Alpha receptors outnumber Beta in most vascular beds; except in skeletal muscles. Here epinephrine causes vasodilation) Modifiers of Arteriolar Radius Adjustment of Perfusion to Exercise
CV Adjustment to Exercise Some Exercise Physiology Mechanisms Atherosclerotic plaques are a
primary cause of hypertension due to Increase in TPR Capacitance Vessels (Veins) Skeletal
Muscle Pump Fig. 12.46 Blood Pressure BP = SP/DP Systolic Pressure (SP) the pressure in the artery during systole
Diastolic Pressure (DP) the pressure in the artery during diastole Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) (weighted average) MAP = DP + 1/3 (PP) Pulse Pressure (PP) = SP - DP MAP = CO x TPR
SP DP Baroreceptor Locations Carotid sinus
baroreceptors 1. Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch monitor blood pressure. 2. Action potentials are conducted by the
glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to the cardioregulatory and vasomotor centers in the medulla oblongata. ss Glo
2 Sympathetic nerves centers in the medulla oblongata
5. Increased sympathetic stimulation of blood vessels increases vasoconstriction. ic ) 4
stimulation of the heart Cardioregulatory decreases the heart and vasomotor rate. stimulation of the heart
increases the heart rate and stroke volume. u Vag rve
e erv sn het mpat y s
a r (pa erve n s u Vag
3. Increased parasympathetic 4. Increased sympathetic ne eal g
n ary oph 1 Aortic arch baroreceptors
Sympathetic chain 5 Blood vessels 3 Better at controlling BP drops than rise. High BP causes
shift in set point of receptors similar to exercise. Baroreceptor Reflex (Note: if decrease BP: arrows reverse) Renal Hormonal Control of BP
(ACE) BP blood volume Other Renal
Mechanisms affecting BP (ADH) blood volume
blood volume BP BP Mechanism of BV changes on BP
Overview of BP Regulation Hemorrhage Primary Effects Compensation Response Fig. 12.58
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