Cardiovascular: Circulation

Cardiovascular: Circulation

Cardiovascular System: Circulation Pathways and BP Regulation General Physiology Tony Serino, Ph.D. Biology Department Misericordia University

Blood Vessels Types Arteries conduct blood away from heart Elastic arteries, Muscular arteries, arterioles Veins conduct blood toward heart

Venules, small and large veins Capillaries thinnest blood vessel; used in exchange, is the functional unit of circulatory system (Microcirculation) AV shunts, metarterioles, precapillary sphincters, and

capillary bed Capillary Capillary Types Tight Capillary

Fenestrated Capillary Sinusoidal Capillary Capillary Bed Forces Affecting Bulk Flow across the Capillary Wall

Artery vs. Vein Arteries are known as resistance vessels, especially the arterioles Arteries withstand the greatest BP

Veins are capacitance vessels, they are able to change the diameter to hold more or less blood Pressure Changes down CV tree Small

changes in arteriolar diameter produce big changes in resistance; termed total peripheral

resistance (TPR) Elastic Recoil and Artery Contraction Arterial Pressure Curve (Dicrotic Notch)

TPR (total peripheral resistance) TPR is the opposition to blood flow through the vessel (caused by friction) Arteries with their smaller lumen resist blood flow Arteriolar diameter contribute the most to TPR Arteriolar compliance (the ability of the vessel to distend) controls the TPR Sympathetic innervation controls arteriolar radius

The viscosity of the blood also affects resistance Small changes in Arteriole Diameter create large changes in BP Blood Flow Velocity in Vascular Tree

Blood Flow Regulation is mainly a Local Response Understand Reactive Hyperemia and Inflammation; ANS control modifies BF based on whole body needs ANS Control of Arterioles

(Alpha receptors outnumber Beta in most vascular beds; except in skeletal muscles. Here epinephrine causes vasodilation) Modifiers of Arteriolar Radius Adjustment of Perfusion to Exercise

CV Adjustment to Exercise Some Exercise Physiology Mechanisms Atherosclerotic plaques are a

primary cause of hypertension due to Increase in TPR Capacitance Vessels (Veins) Skeletal

Muscle Pump Fig. 12.46 Blood Pressure BP = SP/DP Systolic Pressure (SP) the pressure in the artery during systole

Diastolic Pressure (DP) the pressure in the artery during diastole Mean Arterial Pressure (MAP) (weighted average) MAP = DP + 1/3 (PP) Pulse Pressure (PP) = SP - DP MAP = CO x TPR

SP DP Baroreceptor Locations Carotid sinus

baroreceptors 1. Baroreceptors in the carotid sinus and aortic arch monitor blood pressure. 2. Action potentials are conducted by the

glossopharyngeal and vagus nerves to the cardioregulatory and vasomotor centers in the medulla oblongata. ss Glo

2 Sympathetic nerves centers in the medulla oblongata

5. Increased sympathetic stimulation of blood vessels increases vasoconstriction. ic ) 4

stimulation of the heart Cardioregulatory decreases the heart and vasomotor rate. stimulation of the heart

increases the heart rate and stroke volume. u Vag rve

e erv sn het mpat y s

a r (pa erve n s u Vag

3. Increased parasympathetic 4. Increased sympathetic ne eal g

n ary oph 1 Aortic arch baroreceptors

Sympathetic chain 5 Blood vessels 3 Better at controlling BP drops than rise. High BP causes

shift in set point of receptors similar to exercise. Baroreceptor Reflex (Note: if decrease BP: arrows reverse) Renal Hormonal Control of BP

(ACE) BP blood volume Other Renal

Mechanisms affecting BP (ADH) blood volume

blood volume BP BP Mechanism of BV changes on BP

Overview of BP Regulation Hemorrhage Primary Effects Compensation Response Fig. 12.58

Fig. 12.06 Fig. 12.47 Elephantiasis Vector : mosquito

Pathogen: filaria worms blocking lymph vessels

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