Casevac - Naemt

Casevac - Naemt

Tactical Combat Casualty Care February 2009 Tactical Evacuation Care OBJECTIVES DESCRIBE the differences between MEDEVAC and CASEVAC DESCRIBE the four evacuation categories

DESCRIBE the differences between Tactical Field Care and Tactical Evacuation Care LIST the nine items in a MEDEVAC request OBJECTIVES DESCRIBE the additional assets that may be available for airway management, electronic monitoring, and fluid resuscitation LIST the indications and administrative

controls applicable to giving Packed Red Blood Cells (PRBCs) in the field OBJECTIVES STATE the rules of thumb for calling for Tactical Evacuation and the importance of careful calculation of the risk/benefit ratio prior to initiating the call

Tactical Evacuation Casualties will need to be evacuated as soon as feasible after significant injuries. Evacuation asset may be a ground vehicle, aircraft, or boat. Evacuation time is highly variable Afghanistan evacuations typically take much longer than those in Iraq. Tactical situation and hostile threat to evacuation

platforms may differ markedly from casualty to casualty. The Tactical Evacuation phase allows for additional medical personnel and equipment to be used. Evacuation Terminology MEDEVAC: dedicated special medical evacuation assets marked with a Red Cross MEDEVAC platforms are non-combatant

assets CASEVAC: non-medical casualty evacuation platforms may carry a Quick-Reaction force and provide close air support as well Tactical Evacuation (TACEVAC) this term encompasses both of the above types of evacuation Aircraft Evacuation Planning

Flying rules are very different for different aircraft and units Consider: Distances and altitudes involved Day versus night Passenger capacity Hostile threat Medical equipment Medical personnel

Icing conditions Aircraft Evacuation Planning Ensure that your evacuation plan includes aircraft capable to fly the missions you need Primary, secondary, tertiary options CASEVAC vs MEDEVAC: The Battle of the Ia Drang Valley

1st Bn, 7th Cavalry in Vietnam Surrounded by 2000 NVA - heavy casualties Called for MEDEVAC Request refused because LZ was not secure Eventual pickup by 229th Assault Helo Squadron after long delay Must get this part right

Ground Vehicle Evacuation More prevalent in urban-centric operations in Iraq than austere environment ops in Afghanistan May also be organic to unit or designated

MEDEVAC assets Tactical Evacuation Care TCCC guidelines for care are largely the same in TACEVAC as for Tactical Field Care. There are some changes that reflect the additional medical equipment and personnel that may be present in the TEC setting. This section will focus on those differences.

Airway in TACEVAC Additional Options for Airway Management Laryngeal Mask Airway CombiTube Endotracheal Intubation (ETT) Confirm ETT placement with CO2 monitoring These airways are

advanced skills not taught in basic TCCC course Breathing in TACEVAC Watch for tension pneumothorax as casualties with a chest wound ascend to the lower pressure at altitude. Pulse ox readings will become lower as

casualty ascends unless supplemental oxygen is added. Chest tube placement may be considered if a casualty with suspected tension pneumo fails to respond to needle decompression Supplemental Oxygen in Tactical Evacuation Care Most casualties do not need supplemental

oxygen, but have oxygen available and use for: Casualties in shock Low oxygen sat on pulse ox Unconscious casualties Casualties with TBI (maintain oxygen saturation > 90%)

Fluid Resuscitation in TACEVAC Hextend resuscitation algorithm as before Further resuscitation with packed red blood cells (PRBCs), Hextend, or Lactated Ringers solution (LR) as indicated. If a casualty with TBI is unconscious and has a weak or absent peripheral pulse, resuscitate as necessary to maintain

a systolic blood pressure of 90 mmHg or above. Packed Red Blood Cells in TACEVAC May be useful on prolonged evacuations when logistically feasible Coordination with blood bank is key Keep refrigerated until used

Specific transfusion guidelines in PHTLS Manual Requires special training to use Consider 1:1 PRBC/plasma infusion ratio if used Remember Prevention of Hypothermia in Helicopters!

Cabin wind and altitude cold result in cold stress TACEVAC CARE - Hoisting Rigid Litters Only When Hoisting! Standard Evacuation Categories Urgent/Urgent Surgical: 2 hour window to save life, limb, or eyesight

Priority: Can be safely managed for 4 hours Routine: Can be safely managed for 24 hours Convenience: Can be safely managed at location and do not hinder ongoing tactical mission Tactical Evacuation: Eight Rules of Thumb

TACEVAC 8 Rules of Thumb: Assumptions Decision is being made at 15-30 minutes after wounding Care is being rendered per the TCCC guidelines There are tactical constraints on evacuation Mission interference High risk for team

High risk for TACEVAC platform TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #1 Soft tissue injuries are common and may look bad, but usually dont kill unless associated with shock. TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #2 Bleeding from most extremity wounds

should be controllable with a tourniquet or hemostatic dressing. Evacuation delays should not increase mortality if bleeding is fully controlled. TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #3 Casualties who are in shock should be evacuated as soon as possible.

TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #4 Casualties with penetrating wounds of the chest who have respiratory distress unrelieved by needle decompression of the chest should be evacuated as soon as possible. TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #5 Casualties with blunt or penetrating trauma

of the face associated with airway difficulty should have an immediate airway established and be evacuated as soon as possible. REMEMBER to let the casualty sit up and lean forward if that helps him or her to breathe better! TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #6

Casualties with blunt or penetrating wounds of the head where there is obvious massive brain damage and unconsciousness are unlikely to survive with or without emergent evacuation. TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #7 Casualties with blunt or penetrating wounds to the head - where the skull has been

penetrated but the casualty is conscious should be evacuated emergently. TACEVAC Rule of Thumb #8 Casualties with penetrating wounds of the chest or abdomen who are not in shock at their 15-minute evaluation have a moderate risk of developing late shock from slowly bleeding internal injuries. They should be carefully

monitored and evacuated as soon as feasible. Questions? 9-Line Evacuation Request Required if you want an evacuation from another unit

9-Line Evacuation Request Request for resources through tactical aircraft channels. NOT a direct medical communication with medical providers Significance Determines tactical resource allocation DOES NOT convey much useful medical information

9-line Evacuation Request Line 1: Pickup location Line 2: Radio frequency, call sign and suffix Line 3: Number of casualties by precedence (evacuation category) Line 4: Special equipment required 9-line Evacuation Request

Line 5: Number of casualties by type (litter, ambulatory) Line 6: Security at pickup site Line 7: Method of marking pickup site 9-line Evacuation Request Line 8: Casualtys nationality and status Line 9: Terrain Description; NBC contamination if applicable

TACEVAC Care for Wounded Hostile Combatants Principles of care are the same for all wounded combatants Rules of Engagement may dictate evacuation process Restrain and provide security Remember that each hostile casualty represents a potential

threat to the provider and the unit and take appropriate measures They still want to kill you. Tactical Evacuation Care Summary of Key Points Evacuation time is highly variable Thorough planning is key

Similar to Tactical Field Care guidelines but some modifications Tactical Evacuation Care Summary of Key Points Tactical Evacuation Rules of Thumb Evacuation Categories 9-Line Evacuation Request

Convoy IED Scenario Recap from TFC Your last medical decisions during TFC enroute to HLZ: Placed tourniquet on both bleeding stumps Disarmed Placed NPA Established IV Administered 500 ml Hextend

IV antibiotics Provided hypothermia prevention Your convoy has now arrived at the HLZ Convoy IED Scenario What is your 9-line? Line 1: Line 2: Line 3:

Line 4: Line 5: Line 6: Line 7: Line 8: Line 9: Grid NS 12345678 38.90, Convoy 6

1 Urgent PRBCs, oxygen, advanced airway 1 litter Secure VS-17 (Orange Panel) U.S. Military Flat field Convoy IED Scenario

Next steps? Continue to reassess casualty and prep for helo transfer Search casualty for any remaining weapons before boarding helo Secure casualtys personal effects Document casualty status and treatment Helicopter arrives. Casualty is transferred to helo Corpsman stays with convoy

Convoy IED Scenario Whats Next? Casualty is now conscious but is confused Reassess casualty for ABCs NPA still in place First Hextend bolus completed 30 minutes ago Tourniquets in place, no significant bleeding Attach electronic monitoring to casualty

Heart rate 140; systolic BP 70 O2 sat = 90% Convoy IED Scenario Whats next? Supplemental Oxygen Why? Casualty is still in shock Whats next?

2nd bolus of Hextend 500ml Why? Casualty is still in shock Convoy IED Scenario Whats next? Inspect and dress known wounds and search for additional wounds Whats next?

Try to Remove tourniquets and use hemostatics? No Why? THREE reasons: Short transport time - less than 2 hours from application of tourniquets No distal extremities to lose Casualty is in shock Questions/Comments?

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