Cell Membranes Osmosis and Diffusion Functions of Membranes 1. Protect cell 2. Control incoming and outgoing substances 3. Maintain ion concentrations of various
substances 4. Selectively permeable - allows some molecules in, others are kept out Phospholipid Bilayer Fluid Mosaic Model
Blood-Brain Barrier Allows some substances into the brain, but screens out toxins and bacteria Substances allowed to cross include: water, CO2, Glucose, O2, Amino Acids,
Alcohol, and antihistamines. HIV and bacterial meningitis can cross the barrier. Solutions Solutions are made of solute and a solvent Solvent - the liquid into which the solute is
poured and dissolved. We will use water as our solvent today. Solute - substance that is dissolved or put into the solvent. Salt and sucrose are solutes. Methods of Transport Across
Membranes 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated Diffusion 4. Active Transport Methods of Transport Across
Membranes 1. Diffusion -passive transport - no energy expended 2. Osmosis - Passive transport of water across membrane 3. Facilitated Diffusion - Use of proteins to carry polar molecules or ions across
4. Active Transport- requires energy to transport molecules against a concentration gradient energy is in the form of ATP Diffusion Movement of molecules from an area of
high concentration to an area of low concentration. Movement from one side of a membrane to another, un-facilitated Diffusion
Osmosis Tonicity is a relative term Hypotonic Solution - One solution has a lower concentration of solute than another. Hypertonic Solution - one solution has a
higher concentration of solute than another. Isotonic Solution - both solutions have same concentrations of solute. Plant and Animal Cells put into various solutions
Types of Transport Todays Lab We are using dialysis tubing as the cell membrane - It is selectively permeable
The solute is either the eosin starch solution or the sugar solution What is the solvent? Membrane Permeability
Solute is eosin-starch-chloride solution Solvent is Water Indicator for presence of starch is IKI Starch is made of amylose and amylopectin
amylopectin is insoluble Iodine is not very soluble in water, but with KI it forms a I3- (triiodine ion) which is soluble. I3- combines with the amylose and the starch molecule turns blue-black. Test for Starch
Elmhurst College Website Test for Chloride ions Indicator for presence of chloride ions is silver nitrate, AgNO3 A white precipitate, AgCl, forms if chloride
is present. Test for Sulfate ions Indicator for the presence of sulfate ions is Barium chloride, BaCl Barium sulfate, BaSO4 - forms a white precipitate
BaCl + NaSO4 ----> BaSO4 + NaCl Living Cells Beet cubes will be used to see the result of boiling and adding alcohol to a live membrane. Yeast cells are used to see effects of heat
Fern gametophytes are used to see result of putting live cells in solutions of varying tonicity Osmosis We will make an osmometer to see osmosis
Sugar solution in a dialysis tube is used to simulate a cell membrane. Various concentrations of solute may be used around the room. This powerpoint was kindly donated to www.worldofteaching.com
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