Cell Structure and Function Plasma Membrane (Cell Membrane) Contains cell contents Double layer of phospholipids & proteins regulates the passage or transport of certain molecules into and out of the cell, while preventing the passage of others.
Called Semi-permeable Phospholipids Polar Hydrophylic head Hydrophobic tail Interacts with water
Nucleus Control center of cell Double membrane Contains Chromosomes Nucleolus
DNA Hereditary material Chromosomes DNA Protiens Form for cell division Chromatin
Nuclear Envelope Separates nucleus from rest of cell Double membrane Has pores Nucleolus Most cells have 2 or more
Directs synthesis of RNA Forms ribosomes Cytoplasm Viscous fluid containing organelles components of cytoplasm
Centrioles Pairs of microtubular structures Play a role in cell division Endoplasmic Reticulum Helps move substances within cells Network of interconnected membranes Two types
Rough endoplasmic reticulum Smooth endoplasmic reticulum Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum Ribosomes attached to surface Manufacture protiens Not all ribosomes attached to rough ER
May modify proteins from ribosomes Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum No attached ribosomes Has enzymes that help build molecules Carbohydrates Lipids
Mitochondria Have their own DNA Bound by double membrane Mitochondria Break down fuel molecules (cellular respiration) Glucose Fatty acids
Release energy ATP Golgi Apparatus Involved in synthesis of plant cell wall Packaging & shipping station of cell
Golgi Apparatus Function 1. Molecules come in vesicles 2. Vesicles fuse with Golgi membrane 3. Molecules may be modified by Golgi Golgi Apparatus Function (Continued) 4. Molecules pinched-off in separate vesicle
5. Vesicle leaves Golgi apparatus 6. Vesicles may combine with plasma membrane to secrete contents Lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Functions Aid in cell renewal
Break down old cell parts Digests invaders Cytoskeleton Filaments & fibers Made of 3 fiber types Microfilaments Microtubules
Intermediate filaments 3 functions: mechanical support anchor organelles help move substances
Pinocytic Vesicles Also called cell drinking Large pocket where large molecules such as proteins and lipids, which cannot pass through the cell membrane, will enter the cell The edges close and pinch away forming a bubble or vacuole in the cytoplasm.
Meiosis The process of cell division of the sex cell or gamete When fertilization occurs, the two sex cells combine to form a simple cell called a zygote
Mitosis Divides into two distinct process Division of the nucleus Division of the cytoplasm Its an orderly series of steps by which the DNA in the nucleus of the cell is equally distributed to two daughter or identical nuclei Not all cells reproduce at the same rate:
Blood forming cells in the bone marrow, cells of the skin, cells of the intestinal tract reproduce continuously. Muscle cells reproduce every few years. Interphase Resting Stage An exact duplicate of each nuclear chromosome
is made (replication) At the start of mitosis, each chromosome has already replicated and called a chromatid Joined by a structure called a centromere Two Centrioles are found in the Centrosome and they replicate in preparation for next step Prophase
Two pairs of Centrioles start to separate toward the opposite ends or poles of the cell Microtubules form between them Nuclear membrane starts to dissolve Nucleolus disappears DNA becomes highly coiled
Metaphase Nuclear membranes completely dissolves Chromatid arrange themselves in a single file Equatorial plate Anaphase Chromatid pairs separate and pulled by
the spindle fiber toward the Centrioles Two chromatids or each replicated chromosome are now fully separated Telophase Chromosomes migrate to the opposite poles of the cell They start to uncoil to become loosely
arranged chromatin granules Nuclear membrane and nucleolus reappear to help reestablish the nucleus as the definite organelle Two new daughter cells are formed Molecule Movement & Cells
Passive Transport Active Transport Endocytosis (phagocytosis & pinocytosis) Exocytosis Passive Transport No energy required
Move due to gradient differences in concentration, pressure, charge Move to equalize gradient High moves toward low Types of Passive Transport 1. Diffusion
2. Osmosis 3. Facilitated diffusion Diffusion Molecules move to equalize concentration Osmosis Special form of diffusion
Fluid flows from lower solute concentration Often involves movement of water Into cell Out of cell Solution Differences & Cells solvent + solute = solution Hypotonic
Solutes in cell more than outside Outside solvent will flow into cell Isotonic Solutes equal inside & out of cell Hypertonic Solutes greater outside cell
Fluid will flow out of cell Facilitated Diffusion Differentially permeable membrane Channels (are specific) help molecule or ions enter or leave the cell Channels usually are transport proteins (aquaporins facilitate the movement of
water) No energy is used Process of Facilitated Transport Protein binds with molecule Shape of protein changes Molecule moves across membrane
Active Transport Molecular movement Requires energy (against gradient) Example is sodium-potassium pump Endocytosis Movement of large material Particles
Organisms Large molecules Movement is into cells Types of endocytosis bulk-phase (nonspecific) receptor-mediated (specific)
Process of Endocytosis Plasma membrane surrounds material Edges of membrane meet Membranes fuse to form vesicle Forms of Endocytosis Phagocytosis cell eating Pinocytosis cell drinking
Exocytosis Reverse of endocytosis Cell discharges material Exocytosis Vesicle moves to cell surface Membrane of vesicle fuses
Materials expelled Disorders of the cell structure Cells may decrease in size- atrophy Due to aging or disease Cells may increase in size- hypertrophy Caused by an increase in workload
Cells can increase in number- hyperplasia Cells have the ability to change into another type of cell- metaplasia A protective response to a stimulus such as smoking Disorders of the cell structure
(continued) The change to the size, shape, and organization of cells as a result of a stimulus- dysplasia Then progresses to Neoplasia Change in the cell structure with an uncontrolled growth pattern
Trauma or Injury Hypoxia- a decreased blood flow to cellular structures Anoxia- a lack of oxygen flow to the cellular structures Tumor Results when cell division does not occur
in the usual pattern Also known as neoplasms Can be divided into two groups: Benign Malignant Benign
Composed of cells contained to the local area. Other names: wart, papilloma Most can be surgically removed Malignant Called cancer
Continue to grow, crowding out healthy cells, interfering with body functions and drawing nutrients away from the body tissue Can spread through a process called metastasis Symptoms of Cancer
Changes in bowel or bladder habits Sores that do not heal Obvious changes in mole or wart Unusual bleeding or discharge A new lump or thickening in the breast or elsewhere Difficulty in swallowing or frequent indigestion Persistent cough or hoarseness
Graphs of Exponential Functions. The . parent exponential function. f (x) = a. x , a > 0, a 1. Many real-life phenomena with patterns of rapid growth (or decline) can be modeled by exponential functions.
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