# Cells and Batteries Lab - University of Michigan Physics 106 Lesson #9 Electrochemical Cells and Batteries Dr. Andrew Tomasch 2405 Randall Lab [email protected] Review: Properties of Electric Charges Franklin Two types of charge: positive and negative (Ben Franklin in early 1700s) Like charges repel; unlike charges attract Charge is conserved Charge is quantized (comes in discreet units) Objects usually have as much negative

charge in them as they do positive charge the total charge is zero (electrically neutral) Review: Charging a Conductor by Conduction Conduction = charging by contact Rub a Teflon rod with fur to separate charge The process of separating charge by friction is called triboelectricity. Review: Conductors and Insulators We can classify materials according to their ability to conduct

electrical charge: Conductors: charges (free electrons) move freely (metal) Insulators: charge is not readily transported (glass) Semiconductors: electrical properties in between Gold is the best conducting metal http://www.physicspost.com Review: Electric Forces In 1785 Charles Coulomb established the fundamental law of electric force between two stationary charged particles: Force directed along the line joining the particles

Force inversely proportional to the square of separation distance between particles Force proportional to the product of the two charges Force attractive if particles have charges of opposite sign and repulsive if charges have same sign Review: Comparing the Electrostatic Force to Gravity Gravitational Coulomb Force: Force (Newton): GMm FG 2 r

FC k q1 q2 r 2 However, the gravitational force can only be attractive! The Electrochemical Cell Used to establish electric current in a circuit Transformation of chemical energy stored in the cell to kinetic energy

of the charge carriers (electrons) Two oppositely charged electrodes (terminals) An electrical potential difference (voltage) exists between the terminals Electric potential is potential energy per unit charge. Multiple cells connected together comprise a battery of cells or battery A 50s-style Carbon-Zinc Cell

Cells in Series and Parallel A battery pack consists of four 1.2-volt cells in series (end-to-end).. The nominal voltage of the battery is the sum of the individual cell voltages = V 4 = 4.8 V With parallel cells, the voltage stays the same = 1.2 V The amount of available charge increases larger current

Current: Charge in Motion Definition: Current is the amount of charge moving past a point per unit time Charge flows in a confined channel (wire) like a river Current is caused by potential differences (voltages) Charge is measured in Coulombs (C) The unit of current is the Ampere (A): 1 A = 1 C/s One Coulomb per second Ampere

1 A = lots of moving charge (1 C = 6.25 x 1018 electrons)! Typical house: 200 A Direct current (DC): flows in one direction Alternating current (AC): flows back and forth Cells, Batteries & Current When connected to a circuit, the potential difference between the cell or battery terminals creates an electric force on the charges in the

conductor causing them to move and establishing an electric current The conventional current is from regions of higher potential to regions of lower potential, positive to negative Conventional current + Battery + Cell

Conventional Current and Electron Flow Truth: the particles which carry charge through wires in a circuit are mobile electrons Ben Franklin: positive charges move (oops!) The direction of current is by convention the direction in which a positive charge would move (so current flows from high potential to low potential) Conventional

Current Electron flow Natural Currents: Lightning and the Northern Lights Resistance Life is tough for free electrons Resistance: Repulsion from other electrons Vibration of atoms Impurities

Energy is dissipated Worse at high temperatures The symbol for a resistor: http://regentsprep.org/Regents/physics/phys03/bresist/default.htm