Ch 1 What is Public Relations?

Ch 1 What is Public Relations?

THINK Public Relations Wilcox/Cameron/Reber/Shin Mid Term Review . Use these as a first review of some of the main points covered this semester, but also each

chapters main terms, people and concepts. Chaps. 1 & 2 follow What wuld be typical representative terms in the definitions of public relations? See p. 6

What are the elements in the RACE formula ? Research , Action, Communication, Evaluation

Why should Public Relations lead marketing strategy/ See p. 18 What are typical components of public

relations? See p. 10 These days, smart planners realize that an organizations goals and objectives can be best accomplished through an ____

approach, not just through marketing but through all communication functions. integrated Public relations professionals are not objective observers, but are advocates for

________ . their clients Chapter 2 follows What is considered an essential ability for a

public relations practitioner? Writing (plus see others on p. 28) You are a recent college graduate and a new public relations professional looking for work.

If a high salary is most important to you, which work setting are you most likely to choose? See p. 37 Is possible to define a single public relations

type of personality for career success? See p. 28 What do practioners do in the technician role, andwhat do they do in the executive role?

See p. 33 Remember use all these as one form of review, but the test covers al of what we have covered so far Chaps. 3 & 4 follow

Many consider him the first presidential press secretary. Amos Kendall Essentially an early publicity release touting the

Pharaohs accomplishments, this provided the key to modern understanding about ancient Egyptian hieroglyphics. The Rosetta Stone What are Grunigs four models of public relations?

Two-way asymmetric Public information Press agentry/publicity Two-way symmetric The major effort worldwide to improve

standards and professionalism in public relations is: accreditation Why is it important for the public relations field to attract a diverse

workforce? Globalization has created a strong need for it, and necessary in order to reach out to diverse audiences. Which key creative public relations

insight did Ivy Lee utilize in his New York Subway campaign? He communicated subway benefits directly to passengers. ________ was the first true public

relations counselor. Ivy Lee What U.S. President in the early days of PRmade extensive use of news conferences and interviews in

drumming up support for his projects. Theodore Roosevelt ________ became known as the father of modern public relations for his big ideas on how to motivate people.

Edward Bernays What are some of the major sources of friction for the public relations function within an organization? Human resources, Legal Marketing (see book)

The trend toward purchasing expert communication services from outside the organization is referred to as: outsourcing

Todays public relations firms offer all of the following EXCEPT: A) executive speech training. B) research and evaluation. C) legal counsel. D) events management. E) crisis communication. Legal counsel

Clients often criticize public relations firms for having what? superficial grasp of the clients problems.

Other names used for public relations departments include _____ corporate relations. public affairs. marketing communications. community relations

_____ is a service many public relations agency provide that is designed to establish company brands and promote reputation. Branding and corporate reputation

The largest PR firm Edelman, The most reputable Fortune 500 corporations tend to think of public relations as a _____ tool.

strategic management Chapter 5 Achieving credibility with

management, defining audiences and segmenting publics, formulating strategy, testing messages are some reason why PR professionals use: research

The use of existing information in books, articles, and electronic databases is known as _____ research secondary

What would be some typical types of qualitative research? focus groups, in-depth interviews, observation, role-playing studies As a research technique, ______

are widely used to help identify attitudes and motivations of important publics and To formulate or pretest message themes. focus groups

When everyone in the target audience has an equal chance of being selected for the survey, this is random sample The most precise random

sampling is usually done from: lists that essentially includes everyone in the targeted audience. The first element in a public relations plan is a:

situation analysis What are the elements of Ketchums Strategic Planning Model? See Page 104

Analysis of key messages, number of brochures distributed, or market share increase are all examples of what stage in the public relations planning process? Measurement

Public relations programs should be directed to what kinds of audiences or publics? specific and defined

The systematic and objective categorizing of content is known as: content analysis ______research usually produces hard data while ____ research is

said to produce soft data Quantitative / qualitative Chapter 6 To inform, To persuade, To motivate

and To build mutual understanding are some of the _____ goals of communication. legitimate Into which media category do

publicity, advertising, and product placements fall? public Brochures, newsletters, annual reports and direct mail are all forms

of ________ media. controlled Message exposure, accurate dissemination of the message, acceptance of the message and

attitude change are a key objective for ________ communicating a message The theory that says people use the mass media for a variety of

purposes in known as uses and gratifications The kind of audience that may initially pay attention to a message

only because its entertaining is k known as a ______ audience. passive Websites, brochures, slide presentations and speeches are

effective tools for delivering information to a(n) _______ audience active It reminds the audience, it can lead to improved learning, it offsets the

noise and it contributes to credibility are a benefit of ______a message. repeating Every person does not go through all five stages, yhe process may end after

any step, the process is like a large funnel and it can be applied to both ideas or products are true of the: Five-Stage Adoption Process At what stage in the adoption

process do people seek more information about the idea or product? interest According to communication researcher

Everett Rogers, people who are eager to try new ideas are called innovators According to a recent survey of public relations practitioners, which

tool is the most effective measure of message exposure? clippings The potential audience reached by a periodical or broadcast program is

known as Media impressions Tracking media coverage and comparing it over time is known as:

benchmarking The ultimate objective of any public relations effort is to achieve _____. organizational

objectives In the Diffusion of Innovations model, ______ are traditionalists who are the last to adopt anything. Laggards (what are the other

adopter types?) Chapter 7 Be sure you bring your book as hard copy or

eBook to class Thursday _____ is the propaganda technique of associating the person, product, or organization with something that has high status, visibility, or credibility.

transfer According to Roper Reports, _____ percent of the population drive public opinion and consumer trends.

Ten to twelve People who take the time to sift information, evaluate it, and form an opinion that is expressed to others are known as

Opinion leaders Gandy estimates that as much as _____ percent of what the media carry comes from public relations sources.

fifty The theory that describes how journalists use facts, themes and treatments to shape a story is known as ______ theory.

framing Regarding the role of conflict and controversy, we find that it tends to ________ key publics. destabilize

_______ can be used to change hostile opinions, neutralize hostile opinions, crystallize latent opinions, or maintain favorable opinions. persuasion

Research by behaviorists suggests that public relations messages should be ______ and relay the impression that _________ simple /

everybody is doing it What are the levels in Maslows Hierarchy of Needs? See reading

What are some factors that limit the effectiveness of persuasive efforts? self-selection, self-perception. lack of message penetration, competing or conflicting messages

Which theory states that media content is influenced by a broad array of forces, all of which attempt to shape a media story? framing

_____ theory says that individuals are seldom influenced by only one opinion leader but actually interact with different leaders. N-step

____ theory states that internal factors such as beliefs, attitudes, and values limit the extent to which an individual accepts or rejects a persuasive message.

Social judgment Which communicaion medium is considered most effective for conveying in-depth information? newspaper

What is considered the most difficult persuasive task? turning hostile opinions into favorable ones.

Which of these is a False statement? (a) Dont advocate something in which you do not believe yourself. (b) Many messages fail because the audience finds them unnecessarily complex in content or language. c) According to a Nielsen survey, a friends recommendation is the most trusted form of source credibility (d) Many

messages fail because the audience finds them unnecessarily complex in content or language. Or (e) Using modern communication techniques, the diffusion of messages is usually pervasive. See the reading As a persuader, which factors are most

important to remember when it comes to negotiation? See the reading Chapter 8 Note this is still being assembled and is

subject to updating through Wednesday Limited resources, different value, advocacy and competition are all associated with ________ strategic conflict

management _______ is the first phase of the conflict management lifecycle. proactive

What strategy is taken in the recovery phase of strategic management of conflict? repairing relations and public image After carefully assessing a threat, the public relations professional may decide

to do what? Such things as ignore a pressure group Or let an issue die on the vine. (see book)

As a persuader, which factors are most important to remember when it comes to negotiation? See the reading Managed correctly, the proactive phase

of the conflict management life cycle can do what, regarding conflict? prevent a conflict from arising. In dealing with the public in a conflict, public

relations professionals should do what? recognize them as a legitimate partner in the process. In issues management, if the company decides the emerging issue is potentially

damaging, what is the next step? Create a strategic plan _____ are defined as a major occurrence with a potentially negative outcome affecting the

organization, company, or industry, as well as its publics, products, services, or good names. Crises What is the most accommodative response in an image restoration strategy?

profuse apology Coombs lists such things as attack the accuser, denial, excuse and justification as ________.

crisis communication strategies Dj vu all over again to public relations professionals in the life cycle of strategic conflict management means essentially that:

It is ongoing Which of the following is True? 1. Risk communication is the first step in the proactive phase of conflict management. 2. The contingency theory of strategic conflict management considers public relations as a

continuum process between an organization and its public. 3. In the reactive phase of conflict management, an organization should employ strategies either to bolster or repair its reputation in the eyes of key publics. 4. The first step of issues management is the analysis of issues after they have become crises.

#2 The contingency theory

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