Ch. 14 Atlantic Slave Trade

Ch. 14 Atlantic Slave Trade

Ch. 14 Atlantic Slave Trade & European Imperialism FQ: How did the arrival of the Dutch, British and French on the world scene in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries affect Africa, Southeast Asia, India, China, and Japan? What were the main features of the African slave trade and what effects did it have on Africa? Africa: The Slave Trade

17th century Dutch seized multiple Portuguese forts along the west African coast and took over Portuguese trade across Indian Ocean. 1602 Dutch East India Company Early contact between Europeans and Africans remained primarily on the coasts of Africa. Origins of the slave trade

Slavery was not new. Existed since ancient times. Planting of sugar cane in South America and the Caribbean increased the demand for labor drastically. Sugar plantations along the east coast of Brazil and throughout the Caribbean. Growth of the slave trade Triangular trade: a pattern of trade in early modern Europe that connected Europe, Africa, and the Americas in an Atlantic economy.

Middle passage: the journey of slaves from Africa to the Americas as the middle leg of the triangular trade. Conduct of the slave trade Europeans bought slaves from local African merchants at slave markets in exchange for gold. African middlemen/merchants, local elites, or rulers often determined

the price and number of slaves. Effects of the slave trade Tragic effects on slaves and families for generations Importation of cheap manufactured good from Europe undermined local cottage industries. Depopulation Need to maintain a constant supply of slaves led to increased warfare and

violence throughout Africa. 1770s Quakers (Society of Friends) were first abolitionist. Slavery Outlawed in France 1790s, Britain 1807, U.S.A. - 1865 The West in Southeast Asia Portugal attempted but failed to dominate the trade of S.E. Asia. Dutch and English were better financed. By the end of the 18th century, the Dutch had controlled almost the entire

Indonesian Archipelago, specifically the spice trade. Strong monarchies in Burma, Thailand, and Vietnam resisted foreign intervention. The French and British in India When the Portuguese arrived in 1498, the Indian subcontinent was divided into a number of Hindu and Muslim kingdoms. Mughal rule over most of India lasted from the early 16th century to

mid 17th century. The Mughal Empire Founded by Babur (1483-1530) descendant of Tamerlane and Genghis Khan. Akbar (Baburs grandson) brought Mughal rule to most of India. By mid 17th century, wars of succession and declining revenue led to the collapse of the Mughal Empire.

Power vacuum opened the door for European trading companies. The Impact of Western Powers 1650 English trading posts established in Surat. Robert Clive (aggressive British empire-builder) became chief representative of the East India Company. Seven Years War (1756-1763) -British defeat the French and emerge as the top colonial power.

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