Ch 21 - Vietnam

Ch 21 - Vietnam

THE FIGHT CONTINUES 1960s-1970s COUNTER CULTURE

CHAPTER 26 STUDENT MOVEMENT Peace Corps, College Life, trust no one over 30 SDS Vietnam protest, poverty, nukes, racism/sexism

Free Speech Hippies communes, tribes, drugs, folk music, experiment with Eastern religion Music Dylan, Hendrix, Baez, Joplin, Beatles Woodstock SDS AT COLUMBIA

DIRTY OLD HIPPIES WOMENS MOVEMENT By 1960s, many women were working, and going to college protests took same form as civil rights

Leaders Betty Friedan Feminine Mystique women felt unfulfilled NOW National Organization for Women Sought fair job pay and status Tried to eliminate female ideals, as sex roles and sex objects

GLORIA STEINEM Members went from one extreme to the other Many women preferred traditional roles, and did not join the movement Inspired from the civil rights movement BETTY

FRIEDAN GLORIA STEINEM MS. MAGAZINE

FIRST ISSUE MAJOR EVENTS Roe vs. Wade 1973 abortion is legal in 1st trimester, reproductive rights, birth control

ERA Equal Rights Amendment calls for equality between sexes never passed Title IX no discrimination allowed in publicly funded schools Opponents Phyllis Schlafly, Dr. Spock, Anita Bryant

Against feminism, gay rights, religious tolerance BLACK RIGHTS AND CASES CA Regents vs. Bakke - schools allowed to use race, but NOT quotas for admissions Affirmative Action must meet quotas

Swann vs Charlotte BOE busing was constitutional Bilingualism and Ebonics debate Will confuse the argument for official English language MEXICAN MOVEMENTS Chicano, Latino, other blue collar industries

Cesar Chaves and Dolores Huerta found United Farm Workers Association demand better working conditions and pay for Mexican migrants Strategy?Consumer boycotts of produce picked on non-union farms

PROTEST ON ERA AND CHAVEZ NATIVE AMERICANS American Indian Movement led by Dennis Banks Disillusioned with govt actions towards native

Americans for 200 years Ultimately want autonomy and self-govt, and retain Indian lands Indian Civil Rights Act gave political autonomy to Indian reservations/ recognized their laws Retaliation: Alcatraz &Wounded Knee

Government Response? Reviews treaties American Indians are given more control over reservation matters ENVIRONMENTAL MOVEMENTS Rachel Carson writes Silent Spring in1962

Dangers of DDT, pollution Air, water, soil pollution comes to light 1st Earth Day 1970 1970 Nixon establishes Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Ralph Nader becomes consumer watchdog for

mass public car industry, lack of safety Unsafe at Any Speed NIXON, FORD, CARTER CHAPTER 27

RICHARD NIXON NIXON Seen as hard on communism; wins by .7 of popular vote

Silent Majority As President Very quiet, but a very good &ruthless politician Stacked support and friends in cabinet Protected by Haldeman and Erlichman Kissinger head of National Security Council German

Jew who believed in realpolitik and strengthening U.S. DOMESTIC POLICY Halt inflation Reduce deficit from Vietnam Relied on deficit spending to spark economy after continued downfall

OPEC raises oil prices, recession occurs Wanted to cut back on welfare spending from LBJ days NOT sympathetic to war protesters - Law and Order DOMESTIC POLICY

CONTINUED Southern Strategy Nixon slowed down de-segregation Cut funding for civil rights organization Had Strom Thurmond support Kept white Southern vote Tried to stop bussing in big cities

FOREIGN POLICY Promoted dtente with communist countries China Nixon is first US president to recognize communist China as independent nation Ended embargo; ping pong match; 1st visit by American

President; meets with Mao Zedong to discuss trade Russia seen as threat, but balances out China USSR Meets with Brezhnev, China peace talks Explore space, trade and weaponry together as team Strategic Arms Limitations Talks 1st step to end of Cold War,

exchange weapons technology WATERGATE 1. List of Enemies Pentagon Papers infuriate Nixon Democrats, Media, Business Harass during elections of 1972 and try to frame with various black mail schemes

2. Wiretaps Reporters, White House Staff, enemies, aided by Hoover, FBI director 3. Plumbers

Pentagon Papers leaked to Ellslberg Scares Nixon to death Shows involvement of own secret deals

Hunt and Liddy hired to steal psychological records of Ellsberg to black mail him WATERGATE CONTINUED 1972 Committee to Re-elect President is in full gear

Raises illegal forms of campaign contributions Reports enemy Muskie as being unreliable, wife is alcoholic, racist dirty tricks is used Liddy and Hunt are hired to gather info about contenders in upcoming election Liddy wiretaps Democratic National Committee in Watergate hotel complex

June 16, 1972 5 men arrested for break-in WATERGATE CONTINUED Nixon contacts FBI to stop investigation Mitchell, Haldeman, and Erlichman pay 100s of thousands of dollars to men arrested as hush

money Nixon continues in election, and wins Watergate Trial Judge Sircia claims greater conspiracy at hand All 5 plead guilty, but also plead the 5th Sentenced to 40 years each, but their sentences reduced if they spill their info and secrets

WATERGATE CONTINUED Woodward & Bernstein (reporters for The Washington Post ) start investigation of Watergate scandal Helped by Deep Throat, and public becomes aware of

dirty tricks of Nixon Senate Select Committee begins investigation McCord caves in, and gives out info Nixon transfers blame to Haldeman and Erlichman, and has them both fired John Dean, lawyer to Nixon, gives out scenario

Audiotapes and wiretaps become public knowledge WATERGATE CONTINUED Portions of tapes are cut out and missing Nixon claims they contain highly classified info about

security, even claims misfed from tape recorder Spiro Agnew resigns (Vice President) Because of tax evasion Gerald Ford (Speaker of the House) becomes Vice President

Congress begins impeachment process House Judiciary Committee votes to impeach Nixon, both Democrats and Republicans alike AUGUST 5 NIXON RELEASES TAPES

Tapes released, deemed smoking gun, and proves that Nixon had knowledge of cover up and break in AUGUST 9 NIXON RESIGNS BEFORE BEING IMPEACHED AFTERMATH & IMPACT Heats up public mistrust of government First Vietnam and now this!

Balance of power seen as triumphant executives of government held accountable Journalism muckraking seen as worthy Woodward and Bernstein receive Pulitzer Prize Politicians realized that powers could not be

abused media on the hunt for scandal GERALD FORD FORD Conservative on welfare

Demands increase in defense spending Pardons Nixon upsets lots of Americans Economic Problems Inflation and unemployment way up Recession in U.S. during post Watergate years Ford calls for public controlled spending, but fails

FOREIGN POLICY Vietnam North Vietnam begins new offensive on South Ford asks for aid from Congress, but because of War Powers Act, Congress says no

Helsinki accords Europe, USA, USSR and Canada sign agreements regarding defense and trade How is it seen by Americans? Didnt do much had to suffer drama of Watergate Chose to run for 1976 election has Bob Dole as Vice president but lost

Americans never saw him as being decisive JIMMY CARTER CARTER Down Home Politician

Chose Walter Mondale as his Vice President From South (Georgia) but against discrimination Seen as being apart from Washington royalty average Joe Religious, military background, peanut farmer True Democrat increase welfare, no tax breaks for the wealthy

Women and minorities LOVE himHowever, stalemated with Congress a lot (Republican) DOMESTIC POLICY Carter cuts spending on social programs Has high interest rates Deregulation more laissez faire approach to

economy Removes oil and gas regulation Conservationist Department of Energy created National Energy Act taxes on gas guzzling cars, people with solar energy get tax breaks, new technology developed instead of fossil fuels

FOREIGN POLICY Panama Canal wanted to return Canal to Panama to improve relations Denounced imperialism in Africa USSR

Carter applauded Soviet dissidents, those who spoke out against government abuse of human rights SALT II reduction of weaponry USSR Invades Afghanistan Carter ends dtente because of Soviet aggression FOREIGN POLICYMIDDLE

EAST Israel/Egypt Relationship Carter invites Begin, Israeli Prime Minister, and el-Sadat, Egypt president and Muslim, to Camp David Camp David Accords Israel withdraws from Sinai peninsula and Egypt recognizes Israel as nation

Iranian US supports Irans Pahlevi regime because of oil and U.S. diplomacy & investmentsbut its a repressive government January1979, revolution breaks out with Muslim fundamentalists, who want traditional ways, and want American infidels to get out of land Ayatollah Khomeini brought out of exile, and overthrows Shah of

Iran Carter allows Shah to have U.S. exile for cancer treatments Iran revolts FOREIGN POLICYMIDDLE EAST Iranian Hostage Crisis

NOVEMBER 4, 1979 Muslim extremists seize American embassy in Teheran, Iran 50 Americans held hostage for 444 days tortured and moved constantly Carters response? Breaks off Iranian ties tries for helicopter rescue mission, which fails

*The Release hostages released in 1981, but at what price?* RIGHTWARD BOUND Carter pardons Draft dodgers and Tokyo Rose loses Veterans vote Approves affirmative action minorities love him

In 1980, Carter hurt for election possibilities Inflation Gas and oil crisis Iran hostage crisis Support for welfare too high as seen by many Americans Approval ratings in the 20s by end of 79! *AMERICA TURNS ITS FOCUS TO THE RIGHT AND IN 1980

ELECTS* RONALD REAGAN

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