Ch. 5 Key Issue 3 Where are other language families distributed?

Ch. 5 Key Issue 3 Where are other language families distributed?

Ch. 5 Key Issue 3 Where are other language families distributed? Classification of languages Distribution of language families Sino-Tibetan language family Other East and Southeast Asian language families Afro-Asiatic language family

Altaic and Uralic language families African language families Distribution of Language Families People of the world: 48% speak an Indo-European language 26% speak Sino-Tibetan 6% speak Afro-Asiatic 5% speak Austronesian

4% speak Dravidian 3% speak Altaic 3% speak Niger-Congo 2% speak Japanese 3% speak a language belonging to one of the 100 smaller language families Major Language Families Percentage of World Population

Fig. 5-11a: The percentage of world population speaking each of the main language families. Indo-European and Sino-Tibetan together represent almost 75% of the worlds people. Sino-Tibetan Family Languages spoken in China and smaller countries in Southeast Asia Chinese govt imposes Mandarin as the official country

language. Chinese is based on 420 one-syllable words Chinese is written with a collection of thousands of characters. Ideograms: represent ideas or concepts, no specific pronunciations. Learning to write in Chinese is the biggest difficulty because of the many characters.

Chinese Ideograms Fig. 5-13: Chinese language ideograms mostly represent concepts rather than sounds. The two basic characters at the top can be built into more complex words. Afro-Asiatic Language Family Includes Arabic and Hebrew, plus northern Africa and southwest Asian languages.

Large % of the worlds Muslims have some Arabic knowledge due to the Quran. Altaic Languages Spoken across a 5,000mile stretch of Asia between Turkey, Mongolia and China. While many of these countries were under Soviet control until the 1990s, they have since returned back to their Altaic languagesAzerbaijan, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan,

Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan. Uralic Languages Estonia, Finland and Hungary speak languages of the Uralic family. Uralic languages can be traced back to a common language of Proto-Uralic 7,000 years ago used by people living in the Ural Mountains in present-day Russia. Migrants

carried their languages to Europe. Language Families of the World Fig. 5-11: Distribution of the worlds main language families. Languages with more than 100 million speakers are named. African Language Families Unknown # of languages spoken in Africa

More than 1,000 languages and several thousand dialects. This results from at least 5,000 years of minimal interaction among other cultures. 1. Niger-Congo: 95 % of sub-Saharan Africa speak these languages 2. Nilo-Saharan: a few million people in north-central Africa 3. Khoisan: 3rd important language, southwest Africa 4. Austronesian: 6% of the worlds people, Indonesia

Language Families of Africa Fig. 5-14: The 1,000 or more languages of Africa are divided among five main language families, including Austronesian languages in Madagascar. Nigeria: conflict among speakers Nigeria has 493 languages Groups living in different regions battle over dominance and discrimination.

Nigeria reflects problems that can arise when cultural diversity and language diversity are packed into a small region. Language also is identified as a distinct cultural importance. Languages of Nigeria Fig. 5-15: More than 200 languages are spoken in Nigeria, the largest country in Africa

(by population). English, considered neutral, is the official language.

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