Ch 6 - Careers and Stress

Ch 6 - Careers and Stress

Ch 4: Part 2 - Stress Feb 13th, 2007 Stress Stress pattern of emotional states and physio reactions in response to stressors Strain accumulated effects of stress (physical symptoms, perf effects) Key is cognitive appraisal of potential stressors (Lazarus & Folkman) Primary appraisal

Secondary appraisal Lazarus & Folkmans model Appraisal Stressor Stress Reaction Coping

Work-related stressors Some occupational differences Decision-makers, constant monitoring, unstructured tasks, etc. Work/non-work conflict Dual career households; work-family stress (role conflict) Role ambiguity uncertainty about how to

complete a job Work-related stressors (cont.) Overload average #hrs/week hasnt changed since 70s, but more outliers Karoshi Japanese term for death by overwork Officially recognized as fatal illness by Japanese in 1989 How large is its effect?

Cottle Reading: Stress & Technology What are her main points? Does a constant need to be in touch at work create stress for us? Do family-friendly policies make sense? Or create more stress? Sexual Harassment

Viewed as a stressor See book for legal definition Legal categories: Hostile environment examples? Quid pro quo examples? Extremely negative effects on job outcomes, mental health, and health outcomes Harassment (cont.)

Impact of climate tolerant of harassment Negative effects of harassment on bystanders Results from Schneider et al. (1997) study? Ethnic harassment components Verbal slurs, exclusion due to ethnicity Similar negative effects as sexual harassment Schneider et al. (2000) study - who had the worst job-related and psychological outcomes?

Non-work stressors Holmes & Rahes Stressful Life Events scale: Neg & pos changes in life affect vulnerability to illness How is the measure linked to illness likelihood? Can we develop a similar stressful events scale based on job events/changes? Daily hassles minor irritations that accumulate

Effects of Stress Recent evidence indicates negative effects on task perf, even w/mild stressors Butdepends on primary appraisal of stressors as threat or challenge How so? Burnout & Boundary Roles Boundary roles positions that require

interaction with members of other orgs &/or public What types of stressors do they report? Maslach burnout likely in these roles: emotional exhaustion, depersonalization occurring among those working w/people 3 burnout dimensions: Emotional exhaustion Depersonalization

Reduced personal efficacy Stagelike process how does it evolve? Stress Management Develop resiliency Physiological techniques Time management Flex-time programs Employee Assistance Programs (EAPs)

See book for more details on this Coping Research Lazarus & Folkman (1980s) problem-focused vs. emotion focused coping Prob-focused: efforts directed at solving or managing the problem Examples?

Emot-focused: manage emotions resulting from stress Examples? Coping processes arent inherently good or bad Folkman & Moskowitz (2000) propose a new focus on positive affect co-occurring during stressful periods w/neg affect. May be adaptive re-focus resources, increase problem-solving (Isen), prevent depression during chronic stress Research indicates links between personality & coping

preferences how so? Coping (cont.) New research directions Future-oriented proactive coping Social aspects of coping Use of religious coping

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