Ch#6, 6.1,6.2,6.3

Ch#6, 6.1,6.2,6.3

KING FAHD UNIVERSITY OF PETROLEUM AND MINERALS PYP 001 Fall 2012 (Term 121) Chapter 6 The Periodic Table 6.1: Development of the Periodic Table The Modern Perodic Table and Perodic Trends Each square of the table includes:

Elements name. Chemical symbol. Atomic number. Atomic mass. Each horizontal raw of periodic is called period. Each Vertical column is called group ( have similar chemical and physical properties). Number of p and e Atomic number increase

across periods and down a group. 6.1: Development of the Periodic Table Cont. The Modern Perodic Table and Periodic Trends Atomic Radius: is the distance from the nucleus to the outermost electrons of an atom. Atomic Radius decreases across a period. Atomic Radius increases down a group. Ionization Energy: the energy required to completely

remove electron from a neutral atom in the gaseous state. Ionization Energy increases from left to Right across a period. Ionization Energy decreases moving down a group. down a group. Periodic Table 6.2: Types of Elements. Metals: ( most of P.T elements, found to the left of the

zigzag line in the P.T) Properties: ( Figure 6.6) Page 97 Shiny, ( reflects light) Malleable,(can be folded and reshaped) Solid at Room Temp, melts at High Temperature ( except Hg) Good conductors of heat and electricity, Ductile. ( can be drawn into thin wires) Chromium (Cr) Copper (Cu)

Aluminum (Al) 6.2: Types of Elements. Nonmetals: Found to the right of the P.T ( except H ) More than of the nonmetals are gases at room Temp. Properties ( opposite to metals) : Not shiny (dull), Brittle (shatter), Poor conductors of heat and electricity.

6.2: Types of Elements. Metalloids: 7 elements located between the metals and nonmetals. Has properties of both metal and nonmetals. All are solids Under certain conditions they produce semiconductors. 6.3: Groups of Elements.

Elements of the same group: : They share certain properties because they have the same number of valence electrons. They are likely to transfer or share electrons with other elements in a group have the same number of valence electrons Reactive Elements. They behave in similar way to obtain a complete set of valence electrons. 6.3: Groups of Elements. Group 1: Alkali Metals Soft

Silver in color. Shiny Low density One valence e. So reactive ( cant found in nature uncombined). Saved in oil sealed containers. Useful uses: salt, long life batteries, clocks, firework, photocells ..etc 6.3: Groups of Elements. Group 17: Halogen Family Made of 5 nonmetals.

Have 7 valence electrons. Very reactive. Dangerous to Human if found uncombined. Many of their compounds are extremely useful. Exist as diatomic molecules: F2, Cl2, Br2, I2 and At2. The only group in which elements exist in 3 states of matter at room Temp , ( check Fig 6.17 page 104). 6.3: Groups of Elements.

Cont , Group 17: Halogen Family Fluorine ( F): Greenish Yellow gas. Never found uncombined in nature. The most reactive element. Used in : toothpaste, nonstick coating.

Chlorine (Cl) : Greenish Yellow gas. Never found uncombined in nature. The name came from Greek word chloros Best known compound is NaCl. Used to make drinking water safe, also to treat swimming pools, Used in industrial processes such as production of papers, plastic, dyes and antiseptics.

6.3: Groups of Elements. Cont , Group 17: Halogen Family Bromine( Br): Reddish- Brown liquid ( at room Temp) with strong odor. The name came from Greek word bromos (stench) The only nonmetal that is liquid under normal conditions

Causes painful burns. Used in dyes (paints), disinfectants and photographic chemicals. 6.3: Groups of Elements. Cont , Group 17: Halogen Family Iodine ( I) : Dark -gray solid .with light metallic luster. Used in human diet ( small amounts) added to table salt. Astatine (As): Radioactive halogen,

Unstable and decay quickly. 6.3: Groups of Elements. Group 18: Noble Gases: All of them are gases at room Temp. Generally they are not reactive . They have a complete set of valence electrons. He has 2 valence electrons, the rest have 8 valence electrons. Present in the atmosphere. He: is the second most abundant gas in Universe. ( either from atmosphere of natural gas).

Ne: more common than He, Used in lights. 6.3: Groups of Elements. Cont , Group 18: Noble Gases Hydrogen( H ): The only element that dose not fit into any other group of the P.T. Located in the upper-left corner. The most abundant element in the universe. Stars use H to produce energy. Colorless, odorless gas. very flammable.

It combines with other elements to form compounds like : Water (H2O), table sugar (C12H22O11) and ammonia ( NH3) Liquid H is used as fuel to lift rockets into space. Summary: 6.1: Development of the Periodic Table The modern periodic table is arranged in horizontal rows call periods and vertical columns called groups. According to the periodic law, chemical elements display a repeating pattern of properties when arranged

in order of increasing atomic number. 6.2: Types of Elements Metal elements are generally shiny, malleable, ductile, and good conductors of heat and electricity. Nonmetal elements are usually dull, brittle and poor conductors of heat and electricity. Metalloids exhibit some properties of metals and some properties of nonmetals. .

Cont . Summary: 6.3: Groups of Elements: The Alkali metals, or Group 1 elements have one valence electron to give up and are very reactive as a result.. Halogens ( Group 17) are the most reactive nonmetals because they need only one electron to become stable. The noble gases ( group 18) are the least reactive elements because they have complete valance levels of electrons,

Recently Viewed Presentations

  • Chapter 1:The Foundations of Entrepreneurship

    Chapter 1:The Foundations of Entrepreneurship

    Norman M. Scarborough Description: Esentials, 2/e. ... Pay-Per-Click Key Words Designing a Killer Web Site Factors That Web Shoppers Say Are Most Important Designing a Killer Web Site Designing a Killer Web Site Designing a Killer Web Site Designing a...
  • PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 10 Security and

    PowerPoint Presentation to Accompany Chapter 10 Security and

    Cyberbullying and cyber-stalking are two categories of harassment. When the exchange involves two minors, it is cyberbullying; when it involves adults, it is cyber-harassment. Cyber-stalking is more serious in nature, with the stalker demonstrating a pattern of harassment and posing...
  • 70-680_Lesson02

    70-680_Lesson02

    Windows Boot Manager phase - Reads BCD. Windows Boot Loader phase. Kernel loading phase. Logon phase. Note that the Windows Startup Process changed drastically with Windows Vista and is the same in Windows 7. There is a chart that can...
  • Asian Gold/Copper IPO Opportunity to Create The New

    Asian Gold/Copper IPO Opportunity to Create The New

    Berlin Sans FB Demi Arial CastleT Wingdings Futura MdCn BT Wingdings 2 Wingdings 3 Book Antiqua Futura BdCn BT MapInfo Symbols Berlin Sans FB Custom Design 1_Custom Design 1_Apex 2_Custom Design 3_Custom Design 1_Apex Slide 1 Slide 2 INDOCHINE MINING...
  • Principals Roadshow Tuesday, 5 November 2013 Medico-Chirurgical Society

    Principals Roadshow Tuesday, 5 November 2013 Medico-Chirurgical Society

    3. Progress. Finance & Post Award Management. Solution Design sign-off completed. Build of the system about to start. Go-Live planned for August 2014
  • Land use change between forestry and agriculture under

    Land use change between forestry and agriculture under

    Model. Base year: 2007. ... Due to the biomass timber yield function, we assume a Leontief function for timber production (??). Harvested timber production is used as the intermediate for other industries (???), determined by the Leontief coefficient (??2, ??3...
  • Paragraph Improvement - 長榮大學數位學習平台

    Paragraph Improvement - 長榮大學數位學習平台

    Features of a Good Paragraph. Interesting content. Focus: organization around a topic sentence. Adequate support for the topic sentence (sufficient reasons, examples, and details) Supporting sentences have a clear relationship to the topic sentence. Logical development . Coherence: smooth transitions...
  • The Road to Revolution - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

    The Road to Revolution - Winston-Salem/Forsyth County Schools

    The Road. to Revolution: (1770-1776) By: Ms. Susan M. Pojer. Horace Greeley HS Chappaqua, NY. Was the. American Revolution. Inevitable?? Tar and Feathering. The Boston Massacre (March 5,1770) The Gaspee Incident(1772) Providence, RI coast. Committees of Correspondence.