Chapter 1 Background

Chapter 1 Background

COMPUTERS AND INFORMATION PROCESSING (CSC134) Chapter 1 : INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTERS Learning Objectives After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category

4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 2 A World of Computers Computers are everywhere : at work, at school, and at home 3

Todays Technology Because technology changes, you must keep up with the changes to remain digitally literate Computer literacy, or Digital literacy involves having a current knowledge and understanding of computers, mobile devices, the web, and related

technologies 4 Learning Objective #1 After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people,

procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 5 What is a Computer? A computer is an electronic device, operating under the control of instructions stored in its own memory, that can accept data, process the data according to specified rules,

produce results, and store the results for future use. Information processing cycle is the series of input, process, output, and storage activities. Produces information (output) Processing

Collects data (input) 6 What is a Computer? Computers process data into information. Data is a collection of unprocessed items, which can include text, numbers, images, audio, and video. Information conveys meaning and is useful to

people. Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 7 What is a Computer? Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

8 Learning Objective #2 After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet.

6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 9 The Components of a Computer 10 The Components of a Computer A computer contains many electric, electronic, and mechanical components known as hardware

11 The Components of a Computer 12 Computer Software Software, also called a program, tells the computer what tasks to perform and how to perform them 13

Computer Software Installing is the process of setting up software to work with the computer, printer, and other hardware. 14 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers

Advantages of Using Computers Disadvantages of Using Computers 15 Advantages of Using Computers Speed data, instructions, and information flow along electronic

circuits in a computer at incredibly fast speeds. Reliability dependable and reliable because they rarely break or fail. Consistency produce the same results consistently, generate errorfree results Storage Communications

store enormous amounts of data and make this data available for processing anytime it is needed. computers can communicate with other computers, often wirelessly, and allow users to communicate with one another. 16 Disadvantages of Using Computers Violation of Privacy

not protected properly, individuals have found their privacy violated and identities stolen. Public Safety computer users have fallen victim to crimes committed by dangerous strangers. Impact on Labor Force created an entire industry with hundreds of thousands of new jobs, the skills of millions of employees have been

replaced by computers. Health Risks prolonged or improper computer use can lead to health injuries or disorders - computer addiction and technology overload. Impact on Environment computer manufacturing processes and computer waste are depleting natural resources and polluting the environment.

17 Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers Green computing involves reducing the electricity consumed and environmental waste generated when using a computer Strategies include:

Recycling Regulating manufacturing processes Extending the life of computers Immediately donating or properly disposing of replaced computers 18

Networks and the Internet A network is a collection of computers and devices connected together, often wirelessly, via communications devices and transmission media 19

Networks and the Internet The Internet is a worldwide collection of networks that connects millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals 20 Networks and the Internet People use the Internet for a variety of reasons: 21

Networks and the Internet A social networking Web site encourages members to share their interests, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other registered users Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 22 Learning Objective #3 After completing this chapter, you will be able to:

1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 23

Types of Computer 24 Types of Computers Supercomputers A supercomputer is the fastest, most powerful computer Fastest supercomputers are capable of

processing more than one quadrillion instructions in a single second Page 25 Figure 1-27 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 26

Mainframe Computers A mainframe is a large, expensive, powerful computer that can handle hundreds or thousands of connected users simultaneously occupy specially wired, air-conditioned rooms and capable of great processing speeds and

data storage Page 25 Figure 1-26 Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1 27 Midrange Computers A midrange computers or servers are computers with

processing capabilities less powerful than a mainframe computer yet more powerful than a personal computer. controls access to the hardware, software, and other resources on a network provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information 28

Personal Computers A personal computer can perform all of its input, processing, output, and storage activities by itself. There are five types of personal computers: desktops, laptops, tablets, smartphones, and wearables. 29 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices

30 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices 31 Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Discovering Computers 2012: Chapter 1

32 Game Consoles A game console is a mobile computing device designed for single-player or multiplayer video games 33

Embedded Computers An embedded computer is a special-purpose computer that functions as a component in a larger product. Consumer Electronics Home Automation Devices Mobile and digital telephones

Digital televisions Cameras Video recorders DVD players and recorders Answering machines Thermostats Sprinkling systems Security monitoring

systems Appliances Lights Automobiles Antilock brakes Engine control modules Airbag controller Cruise control Process Controllers

and Robotics Remote monitoring systems Power monitors Machine controllers Medical devices Computer Devices and Office Machines

Keyboards Printers Faxes Copiers 34 Embedded Computers 35 Types of Computers

36 Learning Objective #4 After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people,

procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 37 Examples of Computer Usage 38 Examples of Computer Usage 39

Computer Applications in Society 40 Computer Applications in Society 41 Learning Objective #5 After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship

between data and information. 2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 42 Elements of an Information System

43 44 Elements of an Information System Learning Objective #6 After completing this chapter, you will be able to: 1. Define the term, computer, and describe the relationship between data and information.

2. Describe the five components of a computer. 3. Differentiate among types, sizes, and functions of computers in each category 4. Describe the uses of computer in society. 5. Explain the parts of an information system: people, procedures, software, hardware, data, and the Internet. 6. Discuss your future, careers and opportunities in information technology. 45 Careers in IT

A Look to the Future Using and Understanding Information Technology Internet & Web browse the Web, communicate with others, locate Information, etc. Powerful Software create professional looking documents, analyze massive amounts of data, create dynamic multimedia pages, and more.

Powerful Hardware more powerful & robust, new technologies such as wireless networks & their impact to connect, equipment can be dynamic vs. essential features of devices remain unchanged Security, Privacy & Ethics Organizations Changing Times need to be careful of the negative potential

effect. rely on quality and flexibility to stay competitive fast paced era and rapid change Chapter Summary References Shelly, Gary B. and Misty E. Vermaat, Discovering Computers - Fundamentals 2012: Your Interactive Guide to the Digital World, Course Technology, Cengage Learning, 2012

OLeary, Timothy and Linda OLeary, Computing Essentials 2014 Complete Edition, McGraw Hill, 2013 49

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