Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION AND BASIC CONCEPTS

Fundamentals of Thermal-Fluid Sciences 4th Edition in SI Units Yunus A. engel, John M. Cimbala, Robert H. Turner McGraw-Hill, 2012 Chapter 20 NATURAL CONVECTION Lecture slides by Mehmet Kanolu Copyright 2012 The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Objectives Understand the physical mechanism of natural convection Derive the governing equations of natural convection, and obtain the dimensionless Grashof number by nondimensionalizing them

Evaluate the Nusselt number for natural convection associated with vertical, horizontal, and inclined plates as well as cylinders and spheres Analyze natural convection inside enclosures such as double-pane windows 2 20-1 PHYSICAL MECHANISM OF NATURAL CONVECTION Many familiar heat transfer applications involve natural convection as the primary mechanism of heat transfer. Examples? Natural convection in gases is usually accompanied by radiation of comparable magnitude except for low-emissivity surfaces. The motion that results from the continual replacement of the heated air in the vicinity of the egg by the cooler air nearby is called a natural convection current, and the heat transfer that is enhanced as a result of this current is called natural convection heat transfer.

The cooling of a boiled egg in a cooler environment by natural convection. The warming up of a cold drink in a warmer environment by natural convection. 3 What is buoyancy force ? The upward force exerted by a fluid on a body completely or partially immersed in it

in a gravitational field. The magnitude of the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. 4 Buoyancy force: The upward force exerted by a fluid on a body completely or partially immersed in it in a gravitational field. The magnitude of the buoyancy force is equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. The net vertical force acting on a body Archimedes principle: A body immersed in a fluid will experience a weight loss in an amount equal to the weight of the fluid it

displaces. The chimney effect that induces the upward flow of hot combustion gases through a chimney is due to the buoyancy effect. 5 6 Volume expansion coefficient: Variation of the density of a fluid with temperature at constant pressure. ideal gas The coefficient of volume expansion is a measure of the change in volume of a substance with

temperature at constant pressure. The larger the temperature difference between the fluid adjacent to a hot (or cold) surface and the fluid away from it, the larger the buoyancy force and the stronger the natural convection currents, and thus the higher the heat transfer rate. 7 In natural convection, no blowers are used, and therefore the flow rate cannot be controlled externally. The flow rate in this case is established by the dynamic balance of buoyancy and friction. An interferometer produces a map of interference fringes, which can be interpreted as

lines of constant temperature. The smooth and parallel lines in (a) indicate that the flow is laminar, whereas the eddies and irregularities in (b) indicate that the flow is turbulent. The lines are closest near the surface, indicating a higher temperature gradient. Isotherms in natural convection over a hot plate in air. 8 20-2 EQUATION OF MOTION AND THE GRASHOF NUMBER The thickness of the boundary layer increases in the flow direction. Unlike forced convection, the fluid

velocity is zero at the outer edge of the velocity boundary layer as well as at the surface of the plate. At the surface, the fluid temperature is equal to the plate temperature, and gradually decreases to the temperature of the surrounding fluid at a distance sufficiently far from the surface. In the case of cold surfaces, the shape of the velocity and temperature profiles remains the same but their direction is reversed. Typical velocity and temperature profiles for natural convection flow over a hot vertical plate at temperature Ts inserted in a fluid at temperature T.

9 Derivation of the equation of motion that governs the natural convection flow in laminar boundary layer Forces acting on a differential volume element in the natural convection boundary layer over a vertical flat plate. This is the equation that governs the fluid motion in the boundary layer due to the effect of buoyancy. The momentum equation involves the temperature, and thus the momentum and

10 energy equations must be solved simultaneously. The complete set of conservation equations, continuity (Eq. 6 39), momentum (Eq. 913), and energy (Eq. 641) that govern natural convection flow over vertical isothermal plates are: The above set of three partial differential equations can be reduced to a set of two ordinary nonlinear differential equations by the introduction of a similarity variable. But the resulting equations must still be solved along with their transformed boundary conditions numerically. 11 The Grashof Number The governing equations of natural convection and the boundary conditions can be nondimensionalized by dividing all dependent and independent variables by suitable constant quantities:

Substituting them into the momentum equation and simplifying give Grashof number: Represents the natural convection effects in momentum equation 12 The Grashof number provides the main criterion in determining whether the fluid flow is laminar or turbulent in natural convection. For vertical plates, the critical Grashof number is observed to be about 109. The Grashof number Gr is a measure of the relative

magnitudes of the buoyancy force and the opposing viscous force acting on the fluid. When a surface is subjected to external flow, the problem involves both natural and forced convection. The relative importance of each mode of heat transfer is determined by the value of the coefficient Gr/Re2: Natural convection effects are negligible if Gr/Re2 << 1. Free convection dominates and the forced convection effects are negligible if Gr/Re2 >> 1. Both effects are significant and must be considered if Gr/Re2 1 (mixed convection).

13 - Ratio of buoyancy forces and thermal and momentum diffusivities. 14 Rayleigh Number, Ra=Gr.Pr In fluid mechanics, the Rayleigh number for a fluid is a dimensionless number associated with buoyancy driven flow (also known as free convection or natural convection). When the Rayleigh number is below the critical value for that fluid, heat transfer is primarily in the form of conduction; when it exceeds the critical value, heat transfer is primarily in the form of convection. The Rayleigh number is defined as the product of the Grashof number, which describes the relationship

between buoyancy and viscosity within a fluid, and the Prandtl number, which describes the relationship between momentum diffusivity and thermal diffusivity. Hence the Rayleigh number itself may also be viewed as the ratio of buoyancy and viscosity forces times the ratio of momentum and thermal diffusivities. 15 Forced vs Natural Convection When analyzing potentially mixed convection, a parameter called the Archimedes number(Ar) parametrizes the relative strength of free and forced convection. The Archimedes number is the ratio of Grashof number and the square of Reynolds number, which represents the ratio of buoyancy force and inertia force, and which stands in for the contribution of natural convection. When Ar >> 1, natural convection dominates and when Ar

<< 1, forced convection dominates. 16 17 Natural convection over surfaces 1) *C & n is depend on the geometry of the surface and flow regime. n=1/4 laminar flow n-=1/3 turbulent flow 2) 1. What is the difference between ReL and RaL ? 2. What is the transition range in a free convection

boundary ? (Laminar) (Turbulent) 3) *All the properties are evaluated at the film temperature, Tf=(Ts+T)/2 18 20-3 NATURAL CONVECTION OVER SURFACES Natural convection heat transfer on a surface depends on the geometry of the surface as well as its orientation, the variation of temperature on the surface and the thermophysical properties of the fluid involved. With the exception of some simple cases, heat transfer relations in natural convection are based on experimental studies. Rayleigh

number The constants C and n depend on the geometry of the surface and the flow regime, which is characterized by the range of the Rayleigh number. The value of n is usually 1/4 for laminar flow and 1/3 for turbulent flow. All fluid properties are to be evaluated at the film temperature Tf = (Ts + T)/2. Natural convection heat transfer correlations are usually expressed in terms of the Rayleigh number raised to a constant n multiplied by another constant C, both of which are determined 19 experimentally.

General correlations for vertical plate Eq. (9.24) where, Laminar 104 RaL 109 C = 0.59 n = 1/4 Turbulent 109 RaL 1013 C = 0.10

n = 1/3 For wide range and more accurate solution, use correlation Churchill and Chu Eq. (20.21) 20 21 22 Vertical Plates (qs = constant) The relations for isothermal plates in the table can also be used for plates subjected to uniform heat flux, provided that the plate midpoint temperature TL / 2 is used for Ts in the evaluation of the film temperature, Rayleigh number, and the Nusselt number. Inclined Plates

Natural convection flows on the upper and lower surfaces of an inclined hot plate. In a hot plate in a cooler environment for the lower surface of a hot plate, the convection currents are weaker, and the rate of heat transfer is lower relative to the vertical plate case. On the upper surface of a hot plate, the thickness of the boundary layer and thus the resistance to heat transfer decreases, and the rate of heat transfer increases relative to the vertical orientation. In the case of a cold plate in a warmer environment, the opposite occurs. 23

Natural Convection Example: Consider a 0.6m x 0.6m thin square plate in a room at 30C. One side of the plate is maintained at a temperature of 90C, while the other side is insulated. Determine the rate of heat transfer from the plate by natural convection if the plate is vertical. 24 Horizontal Plates Natural convection flows on the upper and lower surfaces of a horizontal hot plate.

For a hot surface in a cooler environment, the net force acts upward, forcing the heated fluid to rise. If the hot surface is facing upward, the heated fluid rises freely, inducing strong natural convection currents and thus effective heat transfer. But if the hot surface is facing downward, the plate blocks the heated fluid that tends to rise, impeding heat transfer. The opposite is true for a cold plate in a warmer environment since the net force (weight minus buoyancy force) in this case acts downward, and the cooled fluid near the plate tends to descend. Characteristic length

Lc = a/4 for a horizontal square surface of length a Lc = D/4 for a horizontal circular surface of diameter 25 D Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres Natural convection flow over a horizontal hot cylinder. The boundary layer over a hot horizontal cylinder starts to develop at the bottom, increasing in thickness along the circumference, and forming a rising plume at the top. Therefore, the local Nusselt number is highest at the bottom, and lowest at the top of the cylinder when the boundary layer flow

remains laminar. The opposite is true in the case of a cold horizontal cylinder in a warmer medium, and the boundary layer in this case starts to develop at the top of the cylinder and ending with a descending plume at the bottom. 26 20-4 NATURAL CONVECTION INSIDE ENCLOSURES Enclosures are frequently encountered in practice, and heat transfer through them is of practical interest. In a vertical enclosure, the fluid adjacent to the hotter surface rises and the fluid adjacent to the cooler one falls, setting off a rotationary motion within the enclosure that enhances heat transfer through the enclosure. Lc charecteristic length: the distance between the hot and cold surfaces T1 and T2: the temperatures of the hot and cold surfaces

Ra > 1708, natural convection currents Ra > 3105, turbulent fluid motion Nu = 1 Fluid properties at Convective currents in a vertical rectangular enclosure. Convective currents in a horizontal enclosure with (a) hot plate at the top and (b) hot plate at the

bottom. 27 Effective Thermal Conductivity effective thermal conductivity The fluid in an enclosure behaves like a fluid whose thermal conductivity is kNu as a result of convection currents. Nu = 1, the effective thermal conductivity of the enclosure is equal to the conductivity of the fluid. This case corresponds to pure conduction. A Nusselt number of 3 for an enclosure indicates that heat transfer through the

enclosure by natural convection is three times that by pure conduction. Numerous correlations for the Nusselt number exist. Simple power-law type relations in the form of Nu = CRan, where C and n are constants, are sufficiently accurate, but they are usually applicable to a narrow range of Prandtl and Rayleigh numbers and 28 aspect ratios. Horizontal Rectangular Enclosures For horizontal enclosures that contain air, These relations can also be used for other gases with 0.5 < Pr < 2.

For water, silicone oil, and mercury [ ]+ only positive values to be used Based on experiments with air. It may be used for liquids with moderate Prandtl numbers for RaL < 105. When the hotter plate is at the top, Nu = 1. A horizontal rectangular enclosure with isothermal surfaces. 29 Inclined Rectangular Enclosures

An inclined rectangular enclosure 30 with isothermal surfaces. Vertical Rectangular Enclosures A vertical rectangular enclosure with isothermal surfaces. Again, all fluid properties are to be evaluated at the average temperature (T1+T2)/2. 31 Concentric Cylinders The rate of heat transfer through the

annular space between the cylinders by natural convection per unit length Characteristic length the geometric factor for concentric cylinders For FcylRaL < 100, natural convection currents are negligible and thus keff = k. Note that keff cannot be less than k, and thus we should set keff = k if keff/k < 1. Two concentric horizontal isothermal cylinders. The fluid properties are evaluated at the 32 average temperature of (Ti + To)/2. Concentric Spheres

Characteristic length Two concentric isothermal spheres. If keff /k < 1, we should set keff = k. 33 Combined Natural Convection and Radiation Gases are nearly transparent to radiation, and thus heat transfer through a gas layer is by simultaneous convection (or conduction) and radiation. Radiation is usually disregarded in forced convection problems, but it must be considered in natural convection problems that involve a gas. This is especially the case for surfaces with high emissivities. Radiation heat transfer from a surface at temperature Ts surrounded by surfaces at a temperature Tsurr is

= 5.67 108 W/m2K4 StefanBoltzmann constant Radiation heat transfer between two large parallel plates is When T < Ts and Tsurr > Ts, convection and radiation heat transfers are in opposite directions and subtracted from each other. 34 Summary Physical Mechanism of Natural Convection Equation of Motion and the Grashof Number Natural Convection Over Surfaces

Vertical Plates (Ts = constant), (qs = constant) Vertical Cylinders Inclined Plates Horizontal Plates Horizontal Cylinders and Spheres Natural Convection Inside Enclosures

Effective Thermal Conductivity Horizontal Rectangular Enclosures Inclined Rectangular Enclosures Vertical Rectangular Enclosures Concentric Cylinders and Spheres Combined Natural Convection and Radiation 35

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