Chapter 1: The world before the Opening of the Atlantic ...

Chapter 1: The world before the Opening of the Atlantic ...

Chapter 1: The world before the Opening of the Atlantic Essential question: How did American, African, and European cultures differ from each other before 1500? Chapter 1, section1 Warm-up Think about a time when you went to a place for the very first time. How was it the same? How was it different? How did it affect your feelings? 1-1 The Earliest Americans Big Idea: Native American societies developed across Mesoamerica and South America Key Terms: Migration Hunter-gatherers Culture

Land bridge Paleo-Indians Maize First Migration to the Americas Paleo-Indians crossed the Bering land bridge by 10,000 B.C. The warmer climate after the Ice Age created new environments New environments influenced the development of different cultures Early Mesoamerican and South American Societies Olmec and Maya1200 B. C.-200 A.D. , grew maize, built cities with pyramids, but collapsed, perhaps because of environment or rebellion Aztec1100 -1500s A.D. fierce warriors from central Mexico, conquered their neighbors and created a trade empire Inca1400-1500 A.D. in the Andes mountains of South America, known for building and art, built empire of 12 million people 1-2 Native American Cultures

Big Idea: Many diverse Native American cultures developed across the different geographic regions of North America Key terms: Pueblos Totems Teepees Matrilineal Early Societies The earliest people were hunter-gatherers Agriculture allowed them to settle in villages and form more complex societies Anasazi lived in the Southwest, grew maize, beans, squash, Built pueblos and cliff dwellings Declined around 1300 A.D., perhaps due to climate changes Mound Builders farming communities in the Mississippi, Missouri, and Ohio valleys Agriculture based on maize

Built large mounds, many of them in the shapes of animals Declined before discovery by Europeans Native American Culture Areas Culture areas are geographic locations that influence societies North and Northwestarctic and subarctic regions, Aleut and Inuit People. Lived in igloos, hide tents, and huts, lived by fishing and hunting Honored ancestors with totem poles West and SouthwestCalifornia peoples did not need agriculture because food was plentiful; Great Basin lacked rain, so people Hunted and gathered; Pueblo peoples of southwest grew maize And other crops, built houses out of adobe bricks Great Plainsgrasslands between the Rocky mountains and the Mississippi river, nomadic hunters, following herds of bison, lived in teepees Northeast and Southeast Southeastern tribes like the Cherokee, Creek and Seminole lived in farming villages Iroquois formed a league of tribes for self defense and became one of the most powerful tribes in North America,

lived in longhouses Shared beliefs Religion was linked to nature Did not believe in ownership of land and that it should be preserved for future generations 1-3 Trading Kingdoms of West Africa Big idea: Using trade to gain wealth, Ghana, Mali, and Songhai were West Africas greatest kingdoms Key terms Hajj Mosque Mansa Musa West Africas Great Kingdoms Kingdoms of Ghana, Mali and Songhai Three trading kingdoms of West Africa, 300 -1500 A.D. Built on the trade of salt, gold, ivory and slaves

Deeply influenced by the religion of Islam West African Slave Trade After 600 A.D., Arab Muslims and European Christians began to expand the slave trade West Africa was home to many of the enslaved people brought to the Americas, over 6 million by 1800. 1-4 Europe before Transatlantic Travel Big Idea: New Ideas and trade changed Europeans lives Key terms Democracy Black Death Renaissance Joint-stock company Greek and Roman Government

During the Renaissance, Europeans rediscovered the traditions of Greece and Rome Greek Philosophers and Government Aristotle people should live lives based on reason Athensfirst Greek city-state to establish democracy citizens directly voted on issues Roman Law and Government Rome established a republic citizens voted for representatives who passed laws Laws were written and kept on display Concepts of equality before the law and innocent until proven guilty protected Roman citizens rights Middle Ages The time between the fall of Rome and the Renaissance, about 1,000 years. Feudalism---system of promises between lords and vassalsprotection for service

Crusades series of wars between European Christians and Arab Muslims over Palestine, The Holy Land. Europe was introduced to good and ideas from Asia Increased trade between Europe and Asia, reintroduced Europe to Greece and Rome Travel, Trade and Townsnew technologies improved harvests, creation of nation states made travel more secure and trade increased, but the Black Death killed 25 million people. As serfs began to move into cities, a new middle class began to grow., setting the stage for the Renaissance Renaissance Period of rebirth of ideas that began in Italy after 1350 and spread across Europe. Search for Knowledge Europeans rediscovered Greek and Latin (Roman ) writings from Byzantine scholars and Monasteries The search for knowledge and learning spread to the fields of art, literature, science,

and political thought The Renaissance emphasized the importance of people rather than religion Johannes Gutenberg invented a printing press that used movable type More people were able to read more books with more ideas. Economic Changes Affect Trade The growth in trade sparked a commercial revolution Italian port cities grew into important trading centers As trade and commerce grew, the importance of banks grew as well Merchants began to create Joint stock companies, businesses in which a group of people invest together and share profits and losses.

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