Chapter 10

Chapter 10

CHAPTER 10 Schools Using the Venn Diagram, compare and contrast direct instruction, cognitive constructivist and social constructivist approaches. Instruction

Direct/Teacher-centered approach (passive) Teacher controlled, mastery of academic skills, high exceptions for students and maximum time spent on learning tasks Instruction Learner-centered approach (active, construction of knowledge and understanding) Cognitive constructivist approach (Piaget)

Teachers role to assist, support students in exploring/learning from engagement with world to develop understanding Social constructivists approach (Vygotsky) Collaboration with peers in order to co-construct understanding through language/negotiation Opportunities to learn with teacher and peers

Question Which do you think should be used most often: the direct or constructivist approach to instruction? Accountability Effectiveness of school-based, state-mandated standardized tests Using the second handout, create a lists for

pros and cons of NCLB + - Accountability Positive effects (?) Improved student performance

More time teaching the subjects tests High expectations for all students Identification of poorly performing schools, teachers, administrators More closely aligned with direct instructional approach. NCLB Federal Legislation (2002)

Effort to hold schools accountable for success or failure of their students NCLB NCLB Criticism Single score from single test Doesnt measure creativity, motivation, persistence, flexible

thinking or social skills Teachers spend all their time teaching to the test Promotes teacher-centered instruction Not funded Federal government overstepping boundaries (History Majors?) What might be better? A number of measures: tests, quizzes, projects, portfolios, classroom observations, etc.

Middle School 1. 2. 3. 4. When did middle schools emerge? Why did they emerge?

What is one criticism of middle schools? What recommendations do critics have for restructuring the curriculums of middle schools? 5. Critics identify what problem with high school and suggestion for change? 6. What are the pros and cons of middle school? 7. What problems have been identified and what solutions have been offered?

1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7. Middle School 1. 1920s-1930s 2. Because of physical, cognitive and social changes in early adolescents---onset of early puberty

3. Water downed versions of high schools 4. Curriculum needs to reflect biological and psychological needs of students 5. High schools are too passive and dont support autonomy or provide multiple pathways for student to achieve identity. 6. Tough time for students to be making transition cognitively and biologically, big schools, many teachers, large peer group----Top dog, feeling grown up, find friends, more independence

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development 7. Study concluded that most young adolescents: attend massive, impersonal schools; learn form seemingly irrelevant curricula; trust few adults in school; and lack access to health care and counseling.

Carnegie Council on Adolescent Development 7. continued Recommendations Develop smaller communities to lessen the impersonal nature of large schools Lower student to counselor ratios Involve parents and community leaders in school Develop curricular that produce students who are literature in

a variety of areas Have teachers team teach in more flexibly designed curriculum blocks that integrate several disciplines Boost students health and fitness Question What was your middle/high school like in regards to the Carnegie recommendations?

High Schools What are the recommendations for high schools mission for the 21st century and getting students engage in learning? High Schools Better instruction to enable all students to graduate from high school an succeed in postsecondary education and careers

High schools need to have higher expectations for student achievement Students spend too much time working in low-level service jobs Too little coordination and communication across the different levels of K-12 schools as well as between K12 and post secondary High School Best way to get students engaged in learning is

to focus on the psychological factors involved in motivation. Promote sense of belonging by personalizing instruction Showing interest in students lives and creating a supportive caring social environment. Dropping Out

1940s half of students dropped out---2003 9.9% Males 12.2 to females 9.3 Reasons: economic, family, peers, personal Reduction: early reading programs, tutoring,

counseling, and mentoring Need to create caring environments/relationships, block scheduling and community service opportunities. Size and Climate of Schools Why did we go to bigger? What are the pros and cons?

+ - Size and Climate of Schools Why did we go to bigger? Increasing urban enrollments Decreasing budgets Belief in increasing academic stimulation in

consolidated schools Size and Climate of Schools Small versus Large Large schools (500+) Not as personalized Not as much social control Students feel alienated, Impersonal, group think, dont take responsibility

for their conduct (especially unsuccessful students) Large class size (average 30-35) Students do better in class sizes of 20 or fewer Classroom Management Authoritative Encourages independent thinking Still involves effective monitoring Verbal give and take

Show caring attitude Need clearly stated rules, regulation (can be established with help of students) Classroom Management Authoritarian Restrictive Punitive Focused on keeping order---not instruction

Firm limits and controls on students Tend to be passive, teacher-centered learning Classroom Management Permissive Student autonomy but with little support for developing learning skills or behavior management. Poor academic and self-control

Classroom Management KEYS Keep the class working together, oriented toward classroom tasks Establishing and maintain learning environment Need repertoire of strategies for: establish rules and procedures

Organizing groups Monitoring and pacing activates Handling misbehavior Profile of a Good Teacher?

Enthusiasm Ability to plan Poise Adaptability Warmth

Flexibility Awareness of individual differences Positive expectations Family

Surprisefamily plays a role is school success. Structured Organized Routines for homework, chores, bedtime and so on Parents

Teachers listed parental involvement as the number one priority in improving education. Peers Popular/acceptance= academic success Having friends (even just one)= academic success Sports/clubs= better academic success

Question What are three characteristics of the best teachers you have had? What are three characteristics of the worst teachers you have ever had? Bullying To reduce bullying, schools can

Bullying Get older peers to serve as monitors and intervene Develop school-wide rules and sanctions against bullying and post them is school Form friendship groups for adolescents who are regularly bullied by peers Incorporate the message of the antibullying program into places of worship, school and other community sites Indentify bullies and victims early and use social skills training to

improve their behavior Encourage parents to contact the schools psychologies, counselor and ask for help with their adolescents bullying or victimization concerns. Become involved in school programs to counteract bullying Reinforce adolescents positive behaviors and model interactions that do not include bullying or aggression. Learning Disabilities Students with learning disabilities are of

normal intelligence or above and have difficulties in at least one academic area and usually several and their difficulty cannot be attributed to any other diagnosed problem or disorder, such as mental retardation. For example: listening, concentration, speaking and thinking. Learning Disabilities

8 percent of U.S. children and adolescents have a learning disability. Three times as many boys as girls 5 percent of school-age children receive special education services Most common: Reading ADHD

Inattention, hyperactivity, impulsivity 7 percent of all children Almost half of all special education children Four to nine times more in boys

85-90 percent of children with ADHD are on medication This does improve but still not the same as children without ADHD Curable? ADHD Causes Low levels of certain neurotransmitters

Prenatal and postnatal abnormalities Environmental toxins such as lead Heredity (30-59 percent of adolescents with ADHD have a sibling or parent who has the disorder) IDEA 1990---amended in 1997, 2004-Individuals with Disabilities Education Improvement Act Services for all children with disabilities

Evaluation Eligibility determination Appropriate education IEP Least restrictive environment (mainstreaming/inclusion) NCLB? Gifted What constitutes gifted?

130+ What are three characteristics of gifted students? Precocity Marching to their own drummer A passion to master

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