CHAPTER 12: HUMAN REMAINS The Pathologist Determines the time of death. This can be done most accurately if the body is found within the first 24 hours of death The Mortis Brothers: Uses certain indicators such as Algor Mortis, Livor Mortis and
Rigor Mortis. 2 Rigor Mortis The rigidity of skeletal muscles after death. Temperature of body Warm Warm Cold Cold Stiffness Approximate Time of body
Since Death Not stiff Stiff Not dead more than 3 hrs Dead between 3 and 8 Stiff Not stiff hrs Dead 8 to 30 hours Dead more than 30 3
Livor Mortis Livor mortis is the settling of blood, resulting in a reddish or purplish color pattern. Lividity (coloring of the skin) can indicate the position of the body after death. When lividity becomes fixed, then the distribution of the pattern will not change even if the bodys position is altered. Lividity usually becomes fixed between 10 and 15 hours after death.
4 Livor Mortis Algor Mortis Algor mortis is the cooling rate of the body after death. At a crime scene, the body temperature is obtained through: Rectal temperature Liver temperature Glaister equation: (98.4F - internal temperature) / 1.5 = hours elapsed since death Generally the body cools 1 to 1.5 degrees Fahrenheit per hour until it reaches the surrounding temperature. 6
Effects that Influence Algor Mortis Temperature of the surrounding environment Type of clothing on the body Wetness of the clothing Air movement Layers of clothing
Size of the individual 7 Forensic Anthropology Forensic anthropology is a type of applied anthropology that specializes in the changes and variations in the human skeleton for the purpose of legal inquiry 8 Forensic Anthropology A forensic anthropologist may provide basic
identification information of skeletonized or badly decomposed remains. From a whole bone or part of a bone, the scientist may be able to determine: An age range Sex Race Approximate height Cause of death, disease, or anomaly 9 Osteology Study of bones 206 bones in an adult human Function of bones:
Provides structure and rigidity Protects soft tissue and organs Serves as an attachment for muscles Produces blood cells Serves as a storage area for minerals Can detoxify the body by removing heavy metals and other foreign elements from the blood 10 Age Determination Most accurate estimations from:
Teeth Epiphyses or growth plates Pubic symphysis Cranial sutures: the three major cranial sutures appear as distinct lines in youth and gradually close from the inside out.
Investigators always use an age range because of the variation in people and how they age. The investigator does not want to eliminate any possibilities for identification. 11 Age Determination Using Cranial Sutures Sagittal suture (fibrous material connecting bones in the skull) completely closed Sagittal suture
Males26 or older Female29 or older Sagittal suture is complete open Maleless than 32 Femaleless than 35 Complete closure of all three major sutures Maleover 35 Femaleover 50
Lambodial Coronal 12 Age Determination Using Basilar Suture Basilar Suture Technically known as the synchondrosis spheno-occipitalis, closes in females as
young as 14 and in males as young as 16. If the suture is open, the individual is generally considered 18 or younger. 13 Age Determination Using Epiphysis Stage of Union of Medial Clavicle Male Female
Non-union without separate epiphysis Non-union with separate epiphysis 21 or younger 20 or younger 16-21 17-20 17-30 17-33
21 or older 20 or older Partial union Complete union 14 Age Determination Using Epiphysis Stage of Union of the Iliac Crest Male Female
Non-union without separate epiphysis Non-union with separate epiphysis 16 or younger 11 or younger 13-19 14-15 14-23 14-23
17 or older 18 or older Partial union Complete union 15 Gender Differences in Bones The pelvis of the female is wider. Males have a narrow subpubic angle (A) and a narrow pubic body (B). 16
Male Female Sub Pubic Angle Gender Differences The ribcage and shoulders of males are generally wider and larger than that of females. In addition, about one person in twenty has an extra rib. This is more common in males than in females.
18 Gender Differences In males the index finger is sometimes shorter than the third finger. In females, the first finger is sometimes longer than the third finger. This is not often used as an indicator of gender as there are many exceptions. Is this a male or female hand according to the above rule? 19 Race Race is difficult to determine from most skeletal
remains, especially since pure races are becoming uncommon. An experienced forensic anthropologist can generally place skulls into one of three groups: CaucasianEuropean, Middle Eastern, and Indian descent NegroidAfrican, Aborigine, and Melanesian descent MongoloidAsian, Native American and Polynesian descent 20 Race Characteristics
Caucasoidshave a long, narrow nasal aperture, a triangular palate, oval orbits, narrow zygomatic arches and narrow mandibles. Negroidshave a wide nasal aperture, a rectangular palate, square orbits, and more pronounced zygomatic arches. The long bones are longer, have less curvature and greater density. Mongoloidshave a more rounded nasal aperture, a parabolic palate, rounded orbits, wide zygomatic arches and more pointed mandibles. 21 What differences do you notice between these three skulls?
Can you determine race? Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company 22 Estimation of Height The height of a person can be calculated by using the length of certain long bones, including the femur, tibia, humerus, and radius. Below are the equations to determine average measurements for both male and female. (All measurements are in centimeters) Male Female
femur x 2.23 + 69.08 femur x 2.21 +61.41 tibia x 2.39 + 81.68 tibia x 2.53 + 72.57 humerus x 2.97 + 73.57 humerus x 3.14 + 64.97 radius x 3.65 + 80.40 radius x 3.87 + 73.50 23 Facial Restoration After determining the sex, age, and race of an individual, facial features can be built upon a skull to assist in identification.
Erasers are used to make tissue depths at various points on the skull. Clay is used to build around these markers and facial features are molded. 25 More Applications Forensic experts may be called upon to give information on the life and death of humans and animals in unique circumstances, including: Mass Murder (Oklahoma bombing, plane crashes, World Trade) Earlier man (mummies, Iceman) Historical Significance (Holocaust, uncertain death of
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