Chapter 13 Motivation at Work

Chapter 13 Motivation at Work

Chapter 13 Motivation at Work Prepared by Joseph Mosca Monmouth University Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 1 Learning Objectives 1. 2. 3. 4. Describe the basic model of

performance. Discuss motivation and human needs. Identify the basic process models of motivation and describe an integrative model of motivation. Describe two other important theories of motivation. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 2 What Is Motivation? Motivation determines how a person will exert his or her effort. It represents the forces operating on the

person to exert effort, as well as the direction in which the effort will be exerted. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 3 Motivation and Needs Needbased theories focus on what motivates a person, rather than on how that motivation occurs. Hierarchy of Needs: Maslow specifies five

levels of needs that are capable of motivating behavior: physiological, security, social, esteem, and selfactualization. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 4 Motivation and Needs Theories ERG theory : Alderfer identifies three rather than two levels of needs; it allows for someone to regress from a higher-level need to a lower-level need. Dual

factor theory: Herzberg identifies motivators and hygiene factors as two sets of conditions at work that can satisfy needs. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 5 Process Theories Process theories: motivation theories that focus on how a person becomes motivated and what they are motivated to do, rather than on what motivates them. Reinforcement

theory: Skinner proposed that all behavior is a function if its consequences. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 6 Reinforcement Theories Extinction refers to the situation where a behavior is followed by no consequences and so it is not repeated. Punishment

refers to a situation where a behavior is followed by negative consequences and so it is not repeated. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 7 Additional Theories Partial reinforcement: rewarding a behavior only part of the time Interval schedules: when behavior is reinforced as a function of the passage of time Ratio schedules: when behavior is reinforced as a function of how many times

the function occurs Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 8 Interval Schedules Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. Fixed Interval schedules: schedules where the amount of time that must pass before a reward is given is constant over time

Variable interval schedules: schedules where the amount of time that must pass before a reward is given can change from one reward period to another 13- 9 Ratio Schedules Fixed ratio schedules: schedules where the number of times a behavior must occur before it is rewarded remains constant over time Variable ratio schedules: ratio schedules where the number of times a behavior must

occur before it is rewarded changes over time. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 10 Expectancy Theory Expectancy Theory or VIE theory is a fairly complex process theory of motivation that casts the employee in the role of decision maker. Basically, an employee decides whether or not to exert effort depending on the outcomes he or she anticipates receiving for those efforts, based on calculations made concerning

expectations, instrumentalities, valences, and the links among these three components. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 11 The Link Between Effort and Performance Effort-to-performance expectancy is the persons perception of the probability that an increase in effort will result in an increase in performance. Performance-to-outcomes expectancy

is the persons perception of the probability that improved performance will lead to certain outcomes. Valence is the attractiveness or unattractiveness an outcome has for a person Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 12 Equity Theory Equity theory is concerned with a persons perceived inputs to a (work) setting and the outcomes they receive from that setting.

The theory suggests that everyone calculates the ratio of inputs to outcomes, almost the way one would consider a return on any investment. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 13 The Goal Theory Goal theory is based on the premise that people with goals work harder

than people without goals. Beyond that, the theory suggests that not all goals are created equal, and that goals which are difficult and yet specific and concrete will motivate employees best. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 14 Agency Theory Agency

theory is concerned with the diverse interests and goals held by the organizations stakeholders, including its employees and managers, and the methods through which the organizations reward system can be used to align these diverse interests and goals. Copyright 2012 by Cengage Learning. All rights reserved. 13- 15

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