Chapter 13 Principles of Ecology - Mrs. Nicolella's Niche
Chapter 13 Principles of Ecology DAY ONE What is Ecology? It is the scientific study of interactions among organisms and between organisms and their environment, or surroundings. The Nonliving Environment
Abiotic factors Are the nonliving parts of an organisms environment. Examples: air currents, temperature, moisture, light, and soil. Abiotic factors affect an organisms life. The Living Environment Biotic factors Are all of the living organisms that inhabit an environment.
All organisms depend on others directly or indirectly for food, shelter, reproduction, or protection. Abiotic and Biotic Factors Habitat versus Niche What do you think the difference between a habitat and a niche is? Habitat is the place a plant or animal lives.
Niche is an organisms total way of life or its role/job in the environment. Levels of Organization Most basic level of organization is called an organism. This is an individual living thing that is made of cells, uses energy, reproduces,
responds, grows, and develops. Levels of Organization Continued Some ecologist study interactions between a particular type of organism and its surroundings. Species a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce
fertile offspring. Levels of Organization Continued Other ecologists study populations. This is a group of individuals that belong to the same species and live in the same area.
Levels of Organization Continued In addition to populations, ecologists also study communities. This is a group of different species that lives in one area, such as a group of alligators, turtles, birds, fish, and plants in the Florida Everglades. Levels of Organization Continued
Ecologists may further decide to study a particular ecosystem. This is a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical environment. Levels of Organization Continued
Larger systems called biomes are also studied by ecologists. A biome is a group of ecosystems that have the same climate and similar dominant communities. Levels of Organization Continued Highest level of organization that an ecologist
studies is the entire biosphere. Biosphere is the portion of Earth that supports living things. Biodiversity! Is the assortment, or variety, of living things in an ecosystem. Examples of areas with high biodiversity: Rainforest
Relationships in ecosystems Very complicated Changing one factor in an ecosystem can affect many other factors It can cause a ripple effect felt across an entire ecosystem. Keystone Species Is a species that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem.
One example of a keystone species is the beaver. Their use of fallen trees to make dams helps change stream habitats into ponds, wetlands, and meadows. Time for some review!!! Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic
Time for some review!!! Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic Time for some review!!! Abiotic or Biotic? Abiotic Time for some review!!! Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic
Time for some review!!! Abiotic or Biotic? Biotic Keystone Species Video Keystone Species Video Ticket out the Door Main Idea. An ecosystem includes both biotic and abiotic factors. Use a word from below to complete the following sentences. Abiotic AnimalsBiotic Living Moisture Nonliving Plants Temperature 1. All ecosystems are made up of __________________________ and
___________________ components. 2. ________________________ factors are living things, such as ________________________ or ________________________. 3. ________________________ factors are nonliving things, such as ________________________, or _______________________. 4. What is the term for an organism that has an unusually large effect on its ecosystem? 5. What is the difference between a biotic and abiotic factor? 6. Place the levels of ecology in order from smallest to largest: ecosystem, population, biosphere, community, and biome _______ ____________________________ Chapter 13 Principles of Ecology DAY TWO
Energy Flow in Ecosystems Sunlight is the main energy source for life on Earth. Less than 1% is actually used by organisms on Earth. Energy flows through ecosystems from producers to consumers. What is a producer? It makes its own food. What is a consumer? Get food by eating producers or other consumers.
Producers Can also be called autotrophs. Troph means nourishment. Auto means self. Look at it as a self-feeder Producers often contain chlorophyll and can use energy directly from the sun. Examples: plants, algae, some protists, and some bacteria!
Review: Niche of a Producer What is a niche? It is the role/job of an organism in the environment. Niche of a producer is: Captures and transforms energy into organic, stored energy for the use of living organisms. May be a photoautotroph using light energy (means it gets energy from the sun) May be chemoautotrophs using chemical energy
Photoautotroph Is a producer that captures energy from the sun by: Photosynthesis Adds oxygen to the atmosphere Removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere Algae Chemoautotrophs Capture energy from the bonds of inorganic
molecules such as hydrogen sulfide. This process is called chemosynthesis. Often occurs in deep- sea vents or guts of animals. copyright cmassengale Tube Worms living in Black Smoker 29 Consumers
Can also be called heterotrophs. Hetero means different Look at it as an organism that eats different types of food Eat other organisms to obtain energy Types of Consumers Herbivores eat only plants Carnivores eat only
animals Omnivores eat both plants and animals. Types of Consumers Detritivores eat detritus, or dead organic matter. Decomposer are detritivores that break down organic matter into simpler compounds.
Consumer Terminology Consumers that eat producers to get energy are what we call primary consumers. In other words they are herbivores. Most of the energy will be used up by the consumer (herbivore). A consumer that eats another consumer is called a secondary consumer. Or they may be called predators or scavengers.
Consumer Terminology A consumer that eats another consumer that already ate a consumer is what we call a tertiary consumer. This could be a carnivore, omnivore, predator, or scavenger. Feeding Relationships
Energy flows through an ecosystem in one direction. From producers to consumers. Transfer of energy from the sun to producer to primary consumer then to higher order consumers is called a food chain. Feeding Relationships Food chains: Is a linear
sequence that links species by their feeding relationships Simple energy path through an ecosystem Name the parts in the food chain! 1st order Consumer
Producer (trapped sunlight & stored food) 2nd Order Consumer 3rd Order consumer 4th Order Consumer Name the Producer, Consumers & Decomposers in this food chain: Food Chain Organizational Levels
Trophic levels: Levels of nourishment in a food chain. Example: producer-herbivorecarnivore has 3 trophic levels. Carnivores are the highest level. Producers are the first of a trophic level (where energy enters the system) Energy flows up the food chain from lowest to highest trophic level. Further Information on Trophic Levels Trophic levels (More review): Primary consumers are herbivores (first
consumer above a producer)! Secondary consumers are carnivores that eat herbivores! Tertiary consumers are carnivores that eat secondary consumers. Omnivores may be listed at different positions in a food chain. Example: If you eat a salad, it is producer - omnivore Feeding Relationships Food webs: Are a model that show the complex network of feeding
relationships and the flow of energy within and sometimes beyond an ecosystem. More realistic path through an ecosystem made of many food chains! Food Web How Ecosystems Work How Ecosystems Work Ticket Out the Door
Main Idea. Producers provide energy for other organisms in an ecosystem. Complete the following sentences with the correct term. Autotrophs Eating Nonliving Consumers Heterotrophs Producers 1. ____________________ are organisms that get their energy from ____________________ resources. These organisms are also called _________________________. 2. ____________________ are organisms that get their energy by ____________________ other organisms. These organisms are also called ___________________. 3. Why are producers important to an ecosystem?
4. What is the difference between a consumer and a producer? Chapter 13 Principles of Ecology DAY THREE Ecological Pyramids Is a diagram that shows the relative amounts of energy or matter contained within each trophic level in a food chain or food web. Can be represented in three forms:
Energy Pyramid Biomass Pyramid Pyramid of Numbers Energy Pyramid Another way of showing the transfer of energy. Compares energy used by producers, primary consumers, and other trophic levels. Illustrates how available energy is distributed among the trophic levels in an ecosystem.
Very large base with smaller sections at the top energy lost energy transferred Loss of Available Energy Energy comes from sunlight We use energy for movement, digestion, and growth So when we look at how energy becomes available or is lost, we have to define biomass
Is a measure of the total dry mass of organism in a given area. When a consumer eats a producer, a great amount of energy is lost as heat and waste! The loss of energy between trophic levels can be as great as 90%. This means only 10% is left to transfer from one trophic level to the next. Trophic Levels E N E
R G Y Tertiary consumers- top carnivores Secondary consumers-small carnivores Primary consumersHerbivores ProducersAutotrophs
Biomass Pyramid Compares the biomass of different trophic levels within an ecosystem Provides a picture of the mass of producers needed to support primary consumers, the mass of primary consumers to support secondary
consumers, and so tertiary consumers 75 g/m2 150g/m2 secondary consumers primary consumers producers
675g/m2 2000g/m2 Pyramid of Numbers Shows the numbers of individual organisms at each trophic level in an ecosystem Effective in showing the vast numbers of producers
required to support even a few top level consumers tertiary consumers 5 secondary consumers 5000
primary consumers 500,000 producers 5,000,000 Ticket Out the Door Main Idea: An energy pyramid shows the distribution of energy among trophic levels. Biomass Heat Waste 1. The measure of the total dry mass of organisms in a given area is
called ______________________. 2. When a consumer incorporates the biomass of a producer into its own biomass, a large amount of energy is lost as ______________________ and ______________________. 3. Label the four tiers of the energy pyramid with the correct trophic level (producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers). Chapter 13 Principles of Ecology DAY FOUR Biogeochemical Cycles Water
Cycle Hydrologic Cycle Defined: Movement of water through the Earth and its atmosphere 75% of the Earth is covered in water Less than 1% is drinkable. Most water is salty or frozen
. .. . ... . . . . . Precipitation: Rain, snow, sleet, or hail falls when water drops become heavy Evaporation: Heatdown changes from lakes, a liquid
to a gas Water vapor to coolcondensation occurs Runoff: Water starts runs hill water into rivers, streams, Transpiration: Water evaporates from vapor
the leaves of into plants Condensation: process where water turns a oceans through openings called into stomata liquid Infiltration: Water soaks
the soil and collects as groundwater Water Cycle Animation Water Cycle Oxygen Cycle O2 O2 Autotrophs: Release O2 into atmosphere by photosynthesis Most life needs O2 for cellular respiration Creates ATP (energy) for cells
Carbon (C) Cycle CO CO CO2 2 CO2 CO2 CO2 2
CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2 CO2
CO2 CO2 CO2 glucose Carbon glucose glucoseCO2 glucoseglucose glucose
Human Contribution Plants Animals Decomposers Release excess CO2 into atmosphere when fossil fuels (coal, oil, Absorb Glucose passed up the foodon chain ObtainCO glucose by feeding dead organisms
2 for photosynthesis natural gas) are burned for energy CO into(Catmosphere Release Carbon released in their waste glucose 2 exhaled
6H12O6) after photosynthesis Keeping Up With Carbon Carbon Video Phosphorus (P) Cycle P P P P P Phosphorus
Step 3: needed to Consumers make ingestATP, P lipids DNA, Step 4: Problem: No Decomposers phosphorus obtain P when in
feed on the atmosphere dead. Step 1: Phosphorus Step 5: Decomposers released by release P weathering of rocks waste within
Step back2:into soil Producers or water P absorb Cycle repeats through their roots Phosphorus (P) Cycle P P
P P P P Human Contribution Adding excess P from fertilizers P washes into lakes, etc Excess P
causes extreme plant & algae growth Nitrogen (N) Cycle N2 N N N N
Usable N Nitrogen fixation N Usable N Nitrogen Step 4: needed to build Producers nucleic acids absorb N (DNA/RNA)
through their Problem: roots in Nitrogen atmosphere Step 5: (NConsumers 2) is unusable Step 1: Bacteria ingest N in soil convert through the N2 into usable
food chain forms Step 6: Step 2: Bacteria Decomposer absorb usable Ns obtain N Step 3: Bacteria from dead release
N waste organisms into air return N to soil in their waste Nitrogen Cycle Nitrogen Cycle Animation Nitrogen (N) Cycle O2 ONO O
N2 N N NO O2 NON2 NO NO O2
N2 N NO O2 O How does lightning help? Energy breaks atmospheric nitrogen into Nitrogen Oxide Nitrogen oxide falls in rain to soil Review 1) Name and define the 6 stages of the water cycle. 2) How is oxygen released into the atmosphere? 3) In which cellular process is oxygen removed and used from the
atmosphere? 4) In which cellular process is carbon dioxide released into the atmosphere? 5) How are humans disrupting the carbon cycle? 6) Which objects release phosphorus over time? 7) How are humans disrupting the phosphorus cycle? 8) Which organisms help convert gaseous nitrogen into a usable form of nitrogen in the nitrogen cycle? 9) How do plants obtain nitrogen?
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