Chapter 14

Chapter 14

Chapter 14 Musculoskeletal System Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Chapter 14 Lesson 14.1 Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-2 Objectives Identify organs and structures of the musculoskeletal system

Identify and define types of body movement Define and spell the word parts related to the musculoskeletal system Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-3 Functions of the Musculoskeletal System The skeletal system provides a framework for the body, protects the soft body parts such as the brain, stores calcium, and produces blood

cells The adult body contains 206 bones The muscular system provides movement, posture, joint stability, and heat production The body consists of more than 600 muscles Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-4 Bone Structure periosteum: outermost layer of the bone,

made up of fibrous tissue compact bone: dense, hard layers of bone tissue that lie underneath the periosteum cancellous (spongy) bone: contains small spaces like a sponge and is encased in the layers of compact bone endosteum: membranous lining of the hollow cavity of the bone Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-5 Bone Structure (contd.) diaphysis: shaft of the long bones epiphysis: ends of the long bone bone marrow: material found in the cavities

of bones red marrow: thick, blood-like material found in flat bones and the ends of long bones (location of blood cell formation) yellow marrow: soft, fatty material found in the medullary cavity of long bones Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-6 Bone Structure (contd.) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-7

Skeletal Bones maxilla: upper jawbone mandible: lower jawbone Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-8 Skeletal Bones (contd) vertebral column: made up of bones called vertebrae through which the spinal cord runs

cervical vertebrae (C1-C7): first set of 7 forming the neck thoracic vertebrae (T1-T12): second set of 12 vertebrae lumbar vertebrae (L1-L5): third set of 5 larger vertebrae, which forms the inward curve of spine Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-9 Skeletal Bones (contd) vertebral column (contd)

sacrum: next five vertebrae, which fuse together coccyx: four vertebrae fused together to form the tailbone lamina: part of the vertebral arch Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-10 Skeletal Bones (contd) clavicle (2): collarbone scapula (2): shoulder blade sternum: breastbone upper extremities: arm and hand bones humerus (2) ulna (2) radius (2) phalanges (28)

metacarpals (10) carpals (16) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-11 Skeletal Bones (contd) pelvic bones (3 pairs fused together) illium (2) ischium (2) pubis (2) lower extremities: leg and foot bones femur (2) patella (2)

tibia (2) fibula (2) tarsals (4) metatarsals (10) phalanges (28) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-12 Skeleton (Anterior View) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-13 Skeleton (Posterior View) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14-14 Joints joint: holds bones together and makes movement possible articular cartilage: smooth layer of gristle covering the contacting surface of joints meniscus: crescent-shaped cartilage found in the knee

intervertebral disk: cartilagionous pad found between the vertebrae in the spine pubic symphysis: cartilaginous joint at which two public bones fuse together Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-15 Joints (contd.) synovia: fluid secreted by the synovial

membrane and found in joint cavities bursa: fluid-filled sac that allows for easy movement of one part of a joint over another ligament: flexible, tough band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches one bone to another at a joint tendon: band of fibrous connective tissue that attaches muscle to bone aponeurosis: strong sheet of tissue that acts as a tendon to attach muscles to bone. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-16 Knee Joint Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-17

Muscles skeletal muscles (striated): attached to bones by tendons and make body movement possible. Skeletal muscles produce action by pulling and by working in pairs. Also known as voluntary muscles because we have control over these muscles. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-18 Muscles (contd.) smooth muscles (unstriated): located in

internal organs such as the walls of blood vessels and the digestive tract. They are also called involuntary muscles because they respond to impulses from the autonomic nerves and are not controlled voluntarily. cardiac muscle: forms most of the wall of the heart. Its involuntary contraction produces the heartbeat. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-19 Types of Body Movement Bones and muscles work together to produce various movements. Some are listed below:

abduction adduction inversion eversion extension flexion pronation rotation supination Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14-20 Types of Body Movement (contd) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-21 Combining Forms of the Musculoskeletal System carp/o clavic/o, clavicul/o cost/o

crani/o femor/o fibul/o humer/o ili/o ischi/o lumb/o mandibul/o maxill/o Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14-22 Combining Forms of the Musculoskeletal System (contd.) patell/o pelv/i, pelv/o phalang/o pub/o rachi/o radi/o

sacr/o scapul/o spondyl/o, vertebr/o stern/o tars/o tibi/o uln/o Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-23 Combining Forms of Joints

aponeur/o arthr/o burs/o chondr/o disk/o menisc/o synovi/o ten/o, tend/o, tendin/o Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-24

Combining Forms Commonly Used with Musculoskeletal System ankyl/o kinesi/o kyph/o lamin/o lord/o

myel/o my/o, myos/o oste/o petr/o scoli/o Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-25 Prefixes intersuprasym-, syn- Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14-26 Clicker Question In the medical term sym/physis, the prefix means a) b) c) d) together, joined surgical fixation, fusion between growth Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-27 Suffixes

-asthenia -clasia, -clasis, -clast -desis -physis -schisis Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-28 Chapter 14 Lesson 14.2 Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Objectives Define, pronounce and spell disease and disorder terms related to the musculoskeletal system. Define, pronounce and spell surgical terms related to the musculoskeletal system. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-30 Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Word Parts

ankylosis arthritis bursitis chondromalacia cranioschisis diskitis fibromyalgia kyphosis

lordosis maxillitis meniscitis myasthenia myeloma osteitis osteoarthritis (OA) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-31 Disease and Disorder Terms Built from Word Parts (cont)

osteochondritis osteofibroma osteomalacia osteomyelitis osteopenia osteopetrosis osteosarcoma polymyositis rachischisis

rhabdomyolysis scoliosis spondylarthritis spondylosis synoviosarcoma

tendinitis tenosynovitis Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-32 Knee Joint A B C

A, Normal. B, Osteoarthritis. C, Rheumatoid arthritis Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-33 Clicker Question The medical term that means softening of bones is a) b) c) osteopetrosis osteoporosis osteomalacia Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-34

Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built from Word Parts ankylosing spondylitis bunion carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) Colles fracture exostosis fracture (fx) gout herniated disk

Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-35 Disease and Disorder Terms Not Built from Word Parts (cont) Lyme disease muscular dystrophy (MD) myasthenia gravis (MC) osteoporosis rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

spinal stenosis spondylolisthesis Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-36 Terms Known by Other Names Term kyphosis rachischisis bunion herniated disk Also called. . . hunchback spina bifida spur slipped disk, ruptured disk, herniated nucleus

pulposus Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-37 Carpal Tunnel Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-38 Colles Fracture Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-39 Spondylolithesis and Spinal Stenosis

Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-40 Surgical Terms Built from Word Parts arthrocentesis aponeurorrhaphy arthroclasia arthrodesis arthroplasty bursectomy

carpectomy chondrectomy chondroplasty costectomy cranioplasty craniotomy diskectomy laminectomy maxillectomy meniscectomy

Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-41 Clicker Question The correct spelling of the term meaning surgical puncture of a joint to aspirate fluid is a) b) c) athrocentesis arthocentesis arhtrocentesis* Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-42

Surgical Terms Built from Word Parts (cont) myorrhaphy ostectomy osteoclasis patellectomy phalangectomy rachiotomy spondylosyndesis

synovectomy tarsectomy tenomyoplasty tenorrhaphy tenotomy vertebroplasty Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-43 Herniated Disk Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

14-44 Diskectomy Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-45 Chapter 14 Lesson 14.3 Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Objectives

Define, pronounce and spell diagnostic terms related to the musculoskeletal system. Define, pronounce and spell complementary terms related to the musculoskeletal system. Interpret the meaning of abbreviations related to the musculoskeletal system. Interpret, read and comprehend medical language in simulated medical statements and documents. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-47 Diagnostic Terms Built from Word Parts Diagnostic imaging

Endoscopy arthrography arthroscopy Other electromyogram (EMG) Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-48

Clicker Question The procedure shown is a (an) a) b) c) arthrocentesis arthroscopy arthroscope joint/cv/visual examination Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-49 Complementary Terms Built from Word Parts

arthralgia atrophy bradykinesia carpal cranial dyskinesia dystrophy femoral humeral hyperkinesia

hypertrophy iliofemoral intercostal intervertebral intracranial ischiofibular ischiopubic lumbar lumbocostal

lumbosacral Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-50 Clicker Question The term dystrophy means a) b) c) abnormal development difficult movement excessive development Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-51

Complementary Terms Built from Word Parts (cont) osteoblast osteocyte osteonecrosis pelvic pelvisacral pubic pubofemoral

sacral sternoclavicular sternoid subcostal submandibular submaxillary subscapular substernal suprapatellar

suprascapular symphysis vertebrocostal Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-52 Complementary Terms Not Built from Word Parts

crepitus chiropodist, podiatrist chiropractic chiropractic orthopedics orthopedist orthotics orthotist osteopath osteopathy prosthesis Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-53 Abbreviations

C1-C7 CTS EMG fx HNP L1-L5 MD

MG OA ortho RA T1-T12 THA Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-54 Medical Terms in Use 1. The orthopedist recommended Mr. Jones have

an arthrodesis to reduce pain caused from an ankle fracture he sustained several years ago. 2. Mrs. Brown severed a tendon by accidentally walking through a glass patio door. A tenorrhaphy was performed to repair the tendon. 3. An electromyogram can assist the physician in diagnosing muscular dystrophy. Atrophy frequently occurs in patients with this disease. Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-55 Medical Terms in Use (cont) 4. Adjective forms of medical terms. a. cranial laceration b. intercostal muscles c. pain in the subcostal region

d. herniation of an intervertebral disk e. intracranial pressure f. femoral artery g. strain of the ischiopubic area h. degenerative disease of the sternoclavicular joint Copyright 2009, 2006 by Mosby, Inc., an affiliate of Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. 14-56

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