Chapter 14 REDOX AND POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATIONS REDOX AND POTENTIOMETRIC TITRATIONS :WE WILL LEARN FROM THIS CHAPTER Balancing redox reactions Calculating the reaction equilibrium constant from standard potentials Calculating redox titration curves Redox indicators Iodimetry and iodometry
Preparing the analyte for titration Potentiometric titrations Derivative titrationsusing spreadsheets for plotting Gran plots First: Balance the ReductionOxidation Reaction 14.1 The calculations redox reaction There are various ways of balancing redox
reactions. Use the method you are most . comfortable with Calculation of the Equilibrium Constant of a 14.2 Reaction Needed to Calculate Equivalence Point Potentials At the equivalence point, we have unknown concentrations that must be calculated from Keq. This is calculated by equating the two Nernst equations, combining the concentration
terms to give Keq, and then solving for Keq from E0 Calculating Redox Titration Curves 14.3 Consider the titration of 100mL of 0.1 M Fe2+ with 0.1 M Ce4+ in 1 M HNO3 Visual Detection of the End Point 14.4 SELF-INDICATION The oxidized and reduced forms of some titrants, such as MnO , have different colors. A solution of MnO
4 4 is intensely purple. In an acidic solution, however, permanganates reduced form, Mn2+ , is nearly colorless. When using MnO4 as a titrant, the analytes solution remains colorless until the equivalence point. The first drop of excess MnO4 produces a permanent tinge of purple, signaling the . end point Specific indicators(Starch) : Some indicators form-2
a colored compound with a specific oxidized or reduced form of the titrant or the analyte . Starch, for example, forms a dark blue complex with iodine I3. We can use this distinct color to signal the presence of excess I3 as a titrant (a change in color from colorless to blue) or the completion of a reaction consuming I3as the analyte (a change in color from blue to colorless ). Another example of a specific indicator is thiocyanate, SCN, which forms a soluble red-colored complex of +Fe(SCN)2+ with Fe3
Redox indicators (True ): The most- 3 important class of indicators are substances that do not participate in the redox titration, but whose oxidized and reduced forms differ in color. When we add a redox indicator to the analyte, the indicator imparts a color that depends on the solutions potential. As the solutions potential changes with the addition of titrant, the indicator changes oxidation state . and changes color, signaling the end point
To understand the relationship between potential and an indicators color, consider its reduction half reaction Inox+ne Inred where Inox and Inred are, respectively, the indicators oxidized and reduced forms. For simplicity, Inox and Inred are shown without specific charges. Because there is a change in oxidation . state, Inox and Inred cannot both be neutral :The Nernst equation for this half-reaction is
While there are many useful acid-base indicators, good redox indicators are few. Table 14.1 lists some of the common indicators arranged in order of decreasing standard potentials Titrations Involving Iodine: Iodimetry and 14.5 Iodometry IODIMETRY
Iodine is a moderately strong oxidizing agent and can be used to titrate reducing agents. Titrations with I2 are called iodimetric methods. These titrations are usually performed in neutral or mildly alkaline (pH 8) to weakly acidic solutions. If the pH is too alkaline. I2 will disproportionate to hypoiodate :and iodide I2 + 2OH IO + I + H2O There are three reasons for keeping the solution
from becoming strongly acidic. First, the starch used for the end-point detection tends to hydrolyze or decompose in strong acid, and so the end point may be affected. Second, the reducing power of several reducing agents is increased in neutral solution. For example, consider the reaction of I2 with As(III): H3AsO3 + I2 + H2O H3AsO4 + 2I + 2H+ This equilibrium is affected by the hydrogen ion concentration. At low hydrogen ion concentration, the equilibrium is shifted to the right.
The third reason for avoiding acid solutions is that the I produced in the reaction tends to be oxidized by dissolved oxygen in acidic solution: 4I + O2 + 4H+ 2I2 + 2H2O The pH for the titration of arsenic (III) with I 2 can be maintained neutral by adding NaHCO3. The bubbling action of the CO 2 formed also helps remove the dissolved oxygen and maintains a blanket of CO2 over the solution to prevent air oxidation of the I . Iodine has a low solubility in water but the complex I 3 is very soluble. So iodine solutions are prepared by dissolving I2 in
a solution of potassium iodide where iodide is present in a large excess: I2 + I I3 Therefore, I3 is the actual species used in the titration. Titrations Involving Iodine: Iodimetry and Iodometry 14.5 IODOMETRY Iodide ion is a weak reducing agent and will reduce strong oxidizing agents. It is not used, however, as a titrant mainly because of the lack of a convenient
visual indicator system, as well as other factors such as speed of the reaction. When an excess of iodide is added to a solution of an oxidizing agent, I2 is produced in an amount equivalent to the oxidizing agent present. This I2 can, therefore, be titrated with a reducing agent, and the result will be the same as if the oxidizing agent were titrated directly. The .titrating agent used is sodium thiosulfate IODOMETRY Analysis of an oxidizing agent in this way is called an
iodometricmethod. Consider, for example, the determination of dichromate: Cr2O7 2 + 6I (excess) + 14H+ 2Cr3+ + 3I2 + 7H2O I2 + 2S2O3 2 2I + S4O6 2 Each Cr2O72 produces 3I2, which in turn react with 6S2O32. The millimoles of Cr2O72 are equal to one-sixth the millimoles of S2O32 used in the titration. Iodate can be determined iodometrically: IO3 + 5I + 6H+ 3I2 + 3H2O Each IO3 produces 3I2, which again react with 6 S2O32, and the millimoles of IO3 are obtained by dividing the
millimoles of S2O32 used in the titration by 6.. IODOMETRY The end point for iodometric titrations is detected with starch. The disappearance of the blue starch I2 color indicates the end of the titration. The starch is not added at the beginning of the titration when the iodine concentration is high. Instead, it is added just before the end point when the dilute iodine color becomes pale yellow. The end point for iodometric titrations is detected
with starch. The disappearance of the blue starch I2 color indicates the end of the titration. The starch is not added at the beginning of the titration when the iodine concentration is high. Instead, it is added just before the end point when the dilute iodine color becomes pale yellow. IODOMETRY There are two reasons for such timing. One is that the iodinestarch complex is only slowly
dissociated, and a diffuse end point would result if a large amount of the iodine were adsorbed on the starch. The second reason is that most iodometric titrations are performed in strongly acid medium and the starch has a tendency to hydrolyze in acid solution. The reason for using acid solutions is that reactions between many oxidizing agents and iodide are promoted by high acidity. Titrations with Other Oxidizing 14.6
Agents 1-Potassium permanganate is a widely used oxidizing titrant. It acts as a self indicator for endpoint detection and is a very strong oxidizing agent (E0 = 1.51 V). The solution is stable if precautions are taken in its preparation. When the solution is first prepared, small amounts of reducing impurities in the solution reduce a small amount of the MnO4. In neutral solution, the reduction product of this permanganate is MnO2, rather than Mn2+ produced in acid medium. The MnO2 acts as a catalyst for further decomposition of the permanganate, which produces
more MnO2, and so on. This is called autocatalytic decomposition.. Titrations with Other Oxidizing 14.6 Agents Potassium permanganate can be standardized by titrating primary standard sodium oxalate, Na2C2O4, which, dissolved in acid, forms oxalic acid: MnO4-
(aq) + 5H2C2O4(aq)+6H+(aq) 2Mn2+ (aq)+10CO2(g)+8H2O(l) The solution must be heated for rapid reaction. The reaction is catalyzed by the Mn2+ product and it goes very slowly at first until some Mn2+ is formed. Pure electrolytic iron metal can also be used as the primary standard. It is dissolved in acid and
reduced to Fe2+ for titration. A difficulty arises when permanganate titrations of iron(II) are performed in the presence of chloride ion. The oxidation of chloride ion to chlorine by permanganate at room temperature is normally slow. However, the oxidation is catalyzed by the presence of iron. If an iron sample has been dissolved in hydrochloric acid, or if stannous chloride has been used to reduce it to iron(II) (see below), the titration can be performed by adding the Zimmermann Reinhardt reagent. This contains manganese(II) and
phosphoric acid. The manganese(II) reduces the potential of the MnO4/Mn2+ couple sufficiently so that permanganate will not oxidize chloride ion; the formal potential is less than E0, due to the large concentration of Mn 2+ . This decrease in the potential decreases the magnitude of the end-point break. Therefore, phosphoric acid is added to complex the iron(III) and decrease the potential of the Fe3+/Fe2+ couple also; the iron(II) is not complexed. In other words, iron(III) is removed from the solution as it is
formed to shift the equilibrium of the titration reaction to the right and give a sharp end point. The overall effect is still a large potential break in the titration curve, but the entire curve has been shifted to a lower potential. An added effect of complexing the iron(III) is that the phosphate complex is nearly colorless, while the chloro complex (normally present in chloride medium) is deep yellow. A sharper end-point color change results. Titrations with Other Oxidizing 14.6
Agents Potassium dichromate-2 Potassium dichromate, K2Cr2O7, is a slightly weaker oxidizing agent than potassium permanganate. The great advantage of this reagent is its availability as a primary standard, and thus, generally the solution need not be standardized. However, in the titration of iron(II), standardizing potassium dichromate against electrolytic iron is preferable for most accurate results since the green color of the chromic ion can introduce a small error in the end point (diphenylamine sulfonate
indicator), and the standardization corrects for this. Admittedly, this is necessary only for the most accurate work. Titrations with Other Oxidizing Agents Potassium 14.6 dichromate Oxidation of chloride ion is not a problem with dichromate. However, the formal potential of the Cr2O72 /Cr3+ couple is reduced from 1.33 to 1.00V in 1 M hydrochloric acid, and
phosphoric acid must be added to reduce the potential of the Fe3+ /Fe2+ couple. Such addition is also necessary because it decreases the equivalence point potential to near the standard potential for the diphenylamine sulfonate indicator (0.84 V). Otherwise, the end point would occur too soon. Titrations with Other Oxidizing Agents 14.6 Cerium(IV) Cerium(IV) is a powerful oxidizing agent. Its formal
potential depends on the acid used to keep it in solution (it must be kept acidic; it hydrolyzes to form ceric hydroxide otherwise). Titrations are usually performed in sulfuric acid or perchloric acid. In H2SO4, the formal potential is 1.44 V, and in HClO4, it is 1.70V. So cerium(IV) is a stronger oxidizing agent in HClO4. Cerium(IV) can be used for most titrations in which permanganate is used, and it possesses a number of advantages. It is a very strong oxidizing agent and its potential can be .varied by choice of the acid used
14.6 Titrations with Other Oxidizing Agents Cerium(IV) The rate of oxidation of chloride ion is slow, even in the presence of iron, and titrations can be carried out in the presence of moderate amounts of chloride without the use of a ZimmermannReinhardt type of preventive solution. The solution can be heated but should not be boiled, or chloride ion will be oxidized. Sulfuric acid solutions of cerium(IV) are stable indefinitely. Nitric acid
and perchloric acid solutions, however, do decompose, but only slowly. An added advantage of cerium is that a salt of cerium(IV), ammonium hexanitratocerate, (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, can be obtained as a primary standard, and the solution does not have to be standardized. 14.6 Titrations with Other Oxidizing Agents Cerium(IV) The rate of oxidation of chloride ion is slow, even in the
presence of iron, and titrations can be carried out in the presence of moderate amounts of chloride without the use of a ZimmermannReinhardt type of preventive solution. The solution can be heated but should not be boiled, or chloride ion will be oxidized. Sulfuric acid solutions of cerium(IV) are stable indefinitely. Nitric acid and perchloric acid solutions, however, do decompose, but only slowly. An added advantage of cerium is that a salt of cerium(IV), ammonium hexanitratocerate, (NH4)2Ce(NO3)6, can be obtained as a primary standard, and the solution does not have to be
standardized. Titrations with Other Oxidizing Agents 14.6 Cerium(IV) The main disadvantage of cerium(IV) is its increased cost over potassium permanganate, although this is not usually a prohibitive factor as time is saved. Ferroin is a suitable indicator for many cerium(IV) titrations. Cerium(IV) solutions can be standardized against
primary standard As2O3, Na2C2O4, or electrolytic iron. The reaction with arsenic(III) is slow, and it must be catalyzed by adding either osmium tetroxide (OsO4) or iodine monochloride (ICl). Ferroin is used as the indicator. Titrations with Other Reducing 14.7 Agents Standard solutions of reducing agents are not used as widely as oxidizing agents are because most of them are oxidized by
dissolved oxygen. They are, therefore, less convenient to prepare and use. Thiosulfate is the only common reducing agent that is stable to air oxidation and that can be kept for long periods of time. This is the reason that iodometric titrations are attractive for determining oxidizing agents. However, stronger reducing agents than iodide ion are sometimes required. Titrations with Other Reducing Agents 14.7
Iron(II) is only slowly oxidized by air in sulfuric acid solution and is a common titrating agent. It is not a strong reducing agent (E0 = 0.771 V) and can be used to titrate strong oxidizing agents such as cerium(IV), chromium(VI) (dichromate), and vanadium(V) (vanadate). Ferroin is a good indicator for the first two titrations, and oxidized diphenylamine sulfonate is used for the last titration. Iron(II) oxidizes slowly; standardization should be
checked daily. Chromium(II) and titanium(III) are very powerful reducing agents, but they are readily air-oxidized and difficult to handle. Preparing the SolutionGetting the Analyte 14.8 in the Right Oxidation State before Titration When samples are dissolved, the element to be analyzed is usually in amixed oxidation state
or is in an oxidation state other than that required for titration. There are various oxidizing and reducing agents that can be used to convert different metals to certain oxidation states prior to titration. The excess preoxidant or prereductant must generally be .removed before the metal ion is titrated REDUCTION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION The reducing agent should not interfere in the
titration or, if it does, unreacted reagent should be readily removable. Most reducing agents will, of course, react with oxidizing titrants, and they must be removable. Sodium sulfite, Na2SO3, and sulfur dioxide are good reducing agents in acid solution (E0 = 0.17 V), and the excess can be removed by bubbling with CO2 or in some cases by boiling. If SO2 is not available, sodium sulfite or bisulfite can be added to an acidified solution.
REDUCTION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION Stannous chloride, SnCl2 is usually used for the reduction of iron(III) to, iron(II) for titrating with cerium(IV) or dichromate. The excess tin(II) is removed by addition of mercuric chloride Metallic reductors are widely used for preparing samples. These are usually used in a granular form in a .column through which the sample solution is passed The sample is eluted from the column by slowly passing dilute acid through it. The oxidized metal ion product
does not interfere in the titration and no excess .reductant is present since the metal is insoluble Metallic reductors OXIDATION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION perchloric acid is a strong oxidizing agent.-1 It can be used to oxidize chromium(III) to dichromate. The mixture must be diluted and cooled very quickly to prevent reduction. Dilute perchloric acid is not a strong oxidizing
agent, and the solution needs only to be diluted following the oxidation. Chlorine is a product of perchloric acid reduction, and this must be removed by boiling the diluted .solution OXIDATION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION Potassium persulfate, K2S2O8, is a-2 powerful oxidizing agent that can be used to oxidize chromium(III) to dichromate,
vanadium(IV) to vanadium(V), cerium(III) to cerium(IV), and manganese(II) to permanganate. The oxidations are carried out in hot acid solution, and a small amount of silver(I) catalyst must be added. The excess persulfate is destroyed by boiling. This boiling .will always reduce some permanganate OXIDATION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION Bromine can be used to oxidize several elements,-3
such as Tl(I) to Tl(III) and iodide to iodate. The excess .is removed by adding phenol, which is brominated 4-Hydrogen peroxide will oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III), Co(II) to Co(III) in mildly alkaline solution, and Cr(II) to Cr(VI) in strongly alkaline solution. The last oxidation can also be accomplished directly by adding granular sodium peroxide. Excess H2O2 can be destroyed by many catalysts. 5-Chlorine 6-Permanganate
OXIDATION OF THE SAMPLE PRIOR TO TITRATION Bromine can be used to oxidize several elements,-3 such as Tl(I) to Tl(III) and iodide to iodate. The excess .is removed by adding phenol, which is brominated 4-Hydrogen peroxide will oxidize Fe(II) to Fe(III), Co(II) to Co(III) in mildly alkaline solution, and Cr(II) to Cr(VI) in strongly alkaline solution. The last oxidation can also be accomplished directly by adding granular sodium peroxide. Excess H2O2 can be destroyed by many catalysts.
5-Chlorine 6-Permanganate Potentiometric Titrations (Indirect Potentiometry) 14.9 Volumetric titrations are usually most conveniently performed with a visual indicator. In cases where a visual indicator is unavailable, potentiometric indication of the end point can often be used. Potentiometric titrations are among the most accurate known because the potential follows
the actual change in activity and, therefore, the end point will often coincide directly with the equivalence point. Potentiometric indication is more sensitive and accurate than visual indication. Potentiometric Titrations pH TITRATIONSUSING pH ELECTRODES PRECIPITATION TITRATIONSUSING SILVER ELECTRODES
REDOX TITRATIONSUSING PLATINUM ELECTRODES ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES IN TITRATIONS MEASURING pM pH TITRATIONSUSING pH ELECTRODES pH TITRATIONS 1- A glass pH electrode is used to follow acidbase titrations. 2- Instead of a visual indicator, this pH change can
be easily monitored with a glass pH electrode. 3- By plotting the measured pH against volume of titrant, can be obtain titration curves. 4-The end point is taken as the inflection point of the large pH break occurring at the equivalence point; this is the steepest part of the curve. PRECIPITATION TITRATIONS 1-A silver electrode is used to follow titrations with silver ion. 2-The indicating electrode in precipitation
titrations is used to follow the change in pM A silver electrode is used to or pA, where M is the cation of the precipitate and A is the anion. 3- The potential of the silver electrode will vary in direct proportion to pAg or pCl REDOX TITRATIONS 1-An inert electrode (e.g., Pt) is used to follow redox titrations. 2- Both the oxidized and reduced forms are
usually soluble and their ratio varies throughout the titration. 3-The potential of the indicating electrode will vary in direct proportion to log (ared/aox) 4-potentiometric titration curve is used to select the appropriate redox indicator (with E0 ln near Eeq.pt.). ION-SELECTIVE ELECTRODES IN TITRATIONSMEASURING pM 1- The term log aion is equal to pIon, and so ion-selective
electrodes (ISE) can be used to monitor changes in pM during a titration. 2-For example, a cation selective glass electrode that is sensitive to silver ion can be used to follow changes in pAg in titrations with silver nitrate. 3- A calcium sensitive electrode can be used for the titration of calcium with EDTA. The electrode should not respond to sodium ion since the disodium salt of EDTA is usually used. 4-If the electrode responds to a second ion in the solution whose activity remains approximately constant
throughout the titration 5- The titration curve will be distorted; this is so because the electrode potential is determined by log(aion + constant) and not log aion. 6- If the contribution from the second ion is not too large, then the distortion will not be too great and a good break will still occur at the end point 7- Titrations involving anions can also be monitored with anion-selective electrodes. For example, fluoride ion can be precipitated with
lanthanum (III), and a fluoride electrode can be used to mark the end point of the titration. Potentiometric titrations are more accurate than direct ISE measurements because the liquidjunction potential is not important. We can make some general statements :concerning potentiometric titrations Some general statements concerning potentiometric titrations 1- The potential readings are usually sluggish in dilute solutions and near the end point because the solution is poorly poised.
2. It is necessary to plot the potential only near the end point. Small increments of titrant are added near the end point, 0.1 or 0.05 mL, for example. The exact end point volume need not be added, but it is determined by interpolation of the E versus volume plot. 3. The polarity of the indicating electrode relative to the reference electrode may change during the titration. That is, the potential difference may go from one polarity to zero and then to the reverse polarity; most voltmeters/pH meters today can read either polarity but if not, the polarity of the potentialmeasuring device may have to be changed.
DERIVATIVE TITRATIONS Plotting or recording the first or second- 1 derivative of a titration curve can more .accurately pinpoint the end point
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