Chapter 14: Revolution and Nationalism

CHAPTER 14: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM Section 1: Revolutions in Russia SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Czars Resist Change Czars Continue Autocratic Rule Succession of Czars: Nicolas I > Alexander II > Alexander III Alexander III and his harsh measures Censorship, close observation on teachers and students, prisoners sent to Siberia Languages restrictions > Russian the official language of the Nation Pogroms > organized violence against the Jews

Russia Industrializes Rapid industrialization changed Russia Trans-Siberian Railroad The Revolutionary Movement Grows SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA The Revolutionary Movement Grows Difficult and grueling working conditions, low wages Labor Unions become outlawed Marxism makes its way to Russia Revolutionaries believed in the Marxist future Working class would overthrow the government The Proletariat would rule the country

Menshelviks Broad base of popular support for the revolution Bolsheviks more radical support for a smaller group of revolutionaries willing to risk all for change V.I. Lenin Leader of the Bolsheviks SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Crises at Home and Abroad Russo-Japanese War Bloody Sunday: The Revolution of 1905 Protests over working conditions and wages Nicolas II ordered the execution of the Protester (including women) Creation and disbandment of the Duma World War I: The Final Blow

Unpopular to enter into the Great War Alexander II goes to the Front Czarina Alexandria stayed home with Rasputin Rasputin abused power and appointed his friends Nobles assassinated Rasputin because of his rising power SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA The March Revolution The Bolshevik Revolution The Czar Steps Down Worker protests in the streets Czar abdicates the throne > provisional Government Lenin Returns to Power

Provisional Government Topples Bolsheviks In Power Bolsheviks take over with Lenin in charge Peace Treaty with German towards the end of World War I SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA Civil War Rages in Russia White Army diversity in the ranks Some support czarist rule Some wanted democratic

government Some saw socialism as different than Lenins view Red Army Bolsheviks Led by Leon Trotsky Red Army crushes all opposition Comparing World Revolutions Lenin Restores Order New Economic Policy A shimmer of capitalism

Political Reforms Several self-governing republics under a central rule USSR Union of Soviet Socialists Republics Soviet local councils consisting of workers, peasants, and soldiers Stalin Becomes Dictator SECTION 1: REVOLUTIONS IN RUSSIA QW #6: Communism or Capitalism the decision ism that easy Do you think that communism threatened or scared the people in western democratic nations? Why or why not?

CHAPTER 14: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM Section 2: Totalitarianism and Stalinist Russia SECTION 2: TOTALITARIANISM AND STALINIST RUSSIA A Government of Total Control Police Terror Enforce the will of the government, not the law Indoctrination Education of the youth Propaganda and Censorship

Creating bias through incomplete or incorrect info Religious or Ethnic Persecution Blame for national problems SECTION 2: TOTALITARIANISM AND STALINIST RUSSIA Stalin Builds a Totalitarian State Police State The Great Purge campaign against members of the Communist Party Civilian Spies Children reported their parents and family members Planted informants Phone taps, mail examined

Suspected traitors Sent to Siberia where they lived in work camps Sentenced to death Stalin was responsible for 8-13 million deaths Russian Propaganda and Censorship State controlled media Newspapers, movies, radio, and other media

Celebrated the Communist Party, the national economy, or Stalin himself Education and Indoctrination Control of all schools and universities Indoctrinated of the greatness of the USSR Religious Persecution All Religions were deemed dangerous to the

communist cause Promotion of atheism SECTION 2: TOTALITARIANISM AND STALINIST RUSSIA Stalin Seizes Control of the Economy Command Economy a system in which the government made all economic decisions An Industrial Revolution Five Year Plans Daily Life Under Stalin Impossible production quotas and expectations

State economy demands > reduced the goods and services for the people Russia becomes a major industrial player An Agricultural Revolution Collective Farms Government control of farms boosted food production Peasant farmers angered > 5-10 million peasants died as result Women Gained rights from the Bolshevik Revolution Forced to join the work force

Education > women made up 75% of Russian doctors Motherhood was their patriotic duty Total Control Achieved SECTION 2: TOTALITARIANISM AND STALINIST RUSSIA QW #7: CHAPTER 14: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM Section 3: Imperialist China Collapses SECTION 3: IMPERIALIST CHINA COLLAPSES

Nationalists Overthrow Qing Dynasty Kuomintang Nationalist Party Sun Yixian first leader Shaky Start for the New Republic Sun Yixians Three Principles of the Republic Nationalism end foreign control Peoples Rights - democracy Peoples livelihood economic security for all Chinese Sun lacked the necessary support Yuan Shikai takes power from Sun and revokes democratic ideals Local warlords take control of as much land as their armies could control SECTION 3: IMPERIALIST CHINA COLLAPSES World War I Spells More Problems

May Fourth Movement Betrayed by the Treaty of Versailles Joined Allied forces in hopes that sovereignty would return to China with an Allied victory Allies gave control of China over to Japan to the outrage of the Chinese Students, workers, shopkeepers, and professionals demonstrated the Chinese commitment to a national sentiment Weaken Chinese belief in Western Democracy Preferred Lenins communism SECTION 3: IMPERIALIST CHINA COLLAPSES The Communist Party in China

Mao Zedong leader of Chinas Communism Organization Lenins communism focused on urban setting, Zedongs revolved around rural setting Lenin Befriends China Sun Yixian throws the Kuomintang in with Communist Party of China Lenin strongly supports Yixian with advisors and supplies Peasants Align with the

Communists Jiang Jieshi and Chinese Nationalists feared socialist economy Many peasants did not believe in Jiang and his movement and instead supported the communist party Nationalists and communists Clash

Both fought warlords for control of territory Jiang turns on communists Jiang becomes president of China US supports his leadership, Soviet Union does not SECTION 3: IMPERIALIST CHINA COLLAPSES Civil War Rages in China Mao swims in the peasant sea to gain support Many peasants join the Red Army & were trained in guerilla

warfare The Long March Surrounded by Jiangs forces, Communist leaders fled their mountain fortress The made their escape on 6ooo mile hike called the Long March Thousands died during that year, the rest settled in caves Civil War Suspended CHAPTER 14: REVOLUTION AND NATIONALISM Section 4: Nationalism in India and Southwest Asia

SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA Indian Nationalism Grows Two groups form to liberate India Hindu Indian National Congress Muslim Muslim League World War I Increases Nationalist Activity Over a million Indians volunteered for service in the British military > Brits promised reforms toward Indian self-government Indians remained second-class citizens in the post war world Rowlatt Acts allowed British government to jail protesters without trial for up to two years Amritsar Massacre Protest to the Rowlatt Acts Considered a Nationalist outburst by the Indians British commander ordered troops to fire upon the crowd who had no escape

Encouraged Indian nationalism who demanded independence The Spark in India SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA Gandhis Tactics of Nonviolence Noncooperation Civil Disobedience Boycotts Refused to buy British goods Urged Indians to make their own goods Strikes and Demonstrations The Salt March Britain Grants Limited Self-Rule

SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA Nationalism in Southwest Asia Turkey Becomes a Republic Persia Becomes Iran Saudi Arabia Keeps Islamic Traditions Oil Drives Development SECTION 4: NATIONALISM IN INDIA & SOUTHWEST ASIA

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