Chapter 4 Equilibrium: How Supply and Demand Determine Prices MODERN PRINCIPLES OF ECONOMICS Third Edition Outline Equilibrium and the Adjustment Process A Free Market Maximizes Producer Plus Consumer Surplus (the Gains from Trade) Does the Model Work? Evidence from the Laboratory
Shifting Demand and Supply Curves 2 Outline Terminology: Demand Compared with Quantity Demanded and Supply Compared with Quantity Supplied Understanding the Price of Oil 3 Definition Equilibrium:
The price at which the quantity demanded is equal to the quantity supplied. 4 Equilibrium equilibrium price equilibrium quantity 5 Equilibrium
Qs = Qd Equilibrium occurs at the intersection of the demand and supply curves. Equilibrium price and quantity are the only ones that are stable in a free market. At any other point, economic forces push prices and quantities back toward equilibrium. 6 Market Equilibrium There is ONLY ONE PRICE where Qs = Qd No shortages
No surpluses FREE MARKETS ALWAYS MOVE TOWARD EQUILIBRIUM PRICE Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok Modern Principles: Macroeconomics, Third Edition / Modern Principles of Economics, Third Edition Copyright 2015 by Worth Publishers Definition Surplus: A situation in which quantity supplied is greater than quantity demanded.
When there is a shortage in a competitive market: a. Price will increase. b. Price will decrease. c. Price will remain the same. Answer: a excess demand will cause price to increase. 18 Equilibrium and Gains From Trade A free market maximizes the gains from trade. 1. Available goods are bought by buyers with the highest willingness to pay. 2. Goods are sold by the sellers with the lowest
costs. 3. Between buyers and sellers, there are no unexploited gains from trade or any wasteful trades. These three conditions imply that the gains from trade are maximized. 19 Unexploited Gains From Trade Price Buyers are willing to pay $90
$90 Supply Suppose quantity is less than equilibrium quantity (say 50) $70 $50 Sellers are willing to supply for $50 //
50 70 90 Demand Quantity (MBD) 20 Unexploited Gains From Trade Price Buyers are
willing to pay $90 $90 Supply Any trade between Unexploited $50 and $90gains will from trade make both parties
better off $70 $50 Sellers are willing to supply for $50 // 50 70 90
Demand Quantity (MBD) 21 Wasted Resources Price Sellers are willing to supply for $90 $90 Supply Suppose quantity is
greater than equilibrium (say 90) $70 $50 Buyers are only willing to pay $50 // 50 70 90
Demand Quantity (MBD) 22 Wasted Resources Price Sellers are willing to supply for $90 $90 Supply
Sellers will not sell Waste of losing units they are resources money on $70 $50 Buyers are only willing to pay $50 //
50 70 90 Demand Quantity (MBD) 23 Gains from Trade are Maximized at the Equilibrium Price and Quantity Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok
Modern Principles: Macroeconomics, Third Edition / Modern Principles of Economics, Third Edition Copyright 2015 by Worth Publishers Equilibrium and Total Surplus Equilibrium in a free market yields two important results: Goods must be produced at the lowest possible cost. Goods must satisfy the highest valued demands. These results indicate that total surplus (both of the consumer and producer) is maximized in free markets. 25
Self-Check If the quantity traded is less than equilibrium quantity: a. Resources will be wasted. b. Suppliers will only supply goods at equilibrium price. c. Some gains from trade will be lost. Answer: c some gains from trade will be lost. 26 Self-Check Economists often say that prices are a rationing mechanism. If the supply of a good
falls, how do prices ration these now-scarce goods in a competitive market? a) Prices allocate goods to the people with the highest willingness to pay. b) Prices allocate goods to the people with the lowest willingness to pay. c) Prices allocate goods to those with the lowest value of their own time. d) Prices allocate goods to the people who deserve them the most 27 Evidence from the Laboratory In 1956, Vernon Smith tested the supply and
demand model in a lab. The model accurately and consistently predicted market behavior. In 2002, Smith was awarded the Nobel Prize for establishing laboratory experiments as an important tool in economics. J. SCOTT APPLEWHITE/AP PHOTO 28 Evidence from the Laboratory Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok
Modern Principles: Macroeconomics, Third Edition / Modern Principles of Economics, Third Edition Copyright 2015 by Worth Publishers Evidence from the Laboratory I am still recovering from the shock of the experimental results. The outcome was unbelievably consistent with competitive price theory. Vernon Smith, winner of 2002 Nobel Prize in Economics, on his 1956 experiments designed to disprove the supply and demand model. Tyler Cowen and Alex Tabarrok Modern Principles: Macroeconomics, Third Edition / Modern Principles of Economics, Third Edition
Copyright 2015 by Worth Publishers Shifting Demand and Supply Price Supply increases Surplus Pa Original Supply New Supply
Creates surplus at original price Demand Qa Quantity 31 Shifting Demand and Supply Price Competition drives price down
Surplus Original Supply New Supply Pa Pb Demand Qa Quantity
32 Shifting Demand and Supply Price New equilibrium at lower price, higher quantity Original Supply New Supply
Pa Lower price increases quantity demanded P b Demand Qa Qb Quantity 33
Self-Check A decrease in supply will: a. Increase both price and quantity. b. Decrease price and increase quantity. c. Increase price and decrease quantity. Answer: c lower supply causes a shortage, increasing price and causing consumers to buy less. 34 Shifting Demand and Supply Price Demand increases
Supply Creates shortage at original price Shortage Pa New Demand Original Demand Qa Quantity 35
Shifting Demand and Supply Price Buyers bid prices up Supply Pb Pa New Demand Original Demand Qa
Quantity 36 Shifting Demand and Supply Price New equilibrium at higher price and quantity Supply Higher price increases quantity supplied Pb Pa
New Demand Original Demand Qa Qb Quantity 37 Self-Check A decrease in demand will: a. Decrease both price and quantity.
b. Decrease price and increase quantity. c. Increase price and decrease quantity. Answer: a lower demand causes a surplus, lowering prices and causing suppliers to supply less. 38 Examples 39 Examples #1: New machine is invented that lowers the cost of harvesting oranges. 40
Examples #2: The FDA announces health benefits to eating oranges. 41 Examples #2: The income of consumers falls and some orange growers quit the business and turn their orange groves into housing developments.. 42 Demand and Quantity Demanded There is a big difference between demand and quantity demanded.
A change in the quantity demanded is a movement along a fixed demand curve. A change in demand is a shift of the entire demand curve (up and to the right). 43 Demand and Quantity Demanded 44 Supply and Quantity Supplied A change in supply is a shift of the entire supply curve A change in quantity supplied is a movement
along a fixed supply curve. 45 Supply and Quantity Supplied 46 Understanding the Price of Oil The supply and demand model can explain oil prices. 47 Market Adjustment The cure for high prices is..high prices Consumer buy less (Law of Demand)
Producers produce more (Law of Supply) The cure for low prices is..low prices Etc, etc 48 Algebra Problem Example A free market can be described by the equations Qd = 180 3P and Qs = 50 + 2P. What are the equilibrium conditions in this market (that is, find equilibrium P and Q) and what are the maximum gains from trade in this market? Answer: Solve for P via Qd = Qs 180 3P = -50 + 2P yields P = 46
Solve for Q using either equation: Q = 180 3(46) = 42 Gains from trade: solve for triangle with Q = 46 D curve price intercept: 0 = 180 3P P = 60 S curve price intercept: 0 = -50 + 2P P = 25 Area of triangle: * (60 25) * 42 = $735 49 Market Adjustment What if there were no prices? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zkPGfT EZ_r4&t=1s 50
Takeaway We can use supply and demand to answer questions about the world. Market competition brings about an equilibrium in which the quantity supplied is equal to the quantity demanded. Only one price/quantity combination is a market equilibrium. Incentives for both buyers and suppliers enforce the market equilibrium. 51 Takeaway The sum of consumer and producer surplus (the gains from trade) is maximized at the
equilibrium price and quantity. Factors which shift supply or demand will change the equilibrium price and quantity. A change in demand (or supply) shifts the whole curve. A change in quantity demanded (or supplied) is a move to a different point on the existing curve. 52
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